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Reasons for the movement to Avignon
1. turmoil among noble families in Rome
2. Clement V was French in his sympathies, close to Philip, French himself
3. to assist in tensions b/w France and England
St. Catherine of Siena
intensive prayer and fasting, received stigmata, had a vision of Pope Gregory XI and his desire to move back to Rome, encouraged he moved back to Rome
Basic Definition of Western Schism
time with 1 or 2 antipopes and confusion over who the real pope was
Gregory XI dies, Pope Urban VI validly elected Pope by French Cardinals (said it was unanimous and free; later say it wasn't)
elected by French Cardinals post-election as Antipope; declare Urban VI invalid; creates confusion
1409 - Council of Pisa
Conciliarism heresy that upholds the authority of a council as greater than papal authority
2nd Antipope elected
16th EC of Constance
1 Antipope loses support, 1 Antipope revokes his claim, Pope Gregory XII (real Pope) agrees to abdicate (step down)
1417 - elect Pope Martin V - end of W. Schism
Good form vs. Evil form
Theocentric vs. Anthropocentric
God centered vs. Human centered
Germany, Augustinian Monk
struggle with scrupulosity, saw human nature as corrupt, how can people possibly be worth salvation
95 Theses, Augsburg Confession, translated Bible into German
Wittenberg, 1517, addressed the issue of simony within indulgences and criticized the Church
France, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, Sola Scriptura, man is total savage, Double Predestination
ppl are determined if they go to heaven or hell by God, ppl to heaven are "elect"
Jacobus Arminius (Post-Calvin)
said predestination is based on God's foreknowledge and of who will have faith
Calvin response to Arminius
Synod of Dort
Perseverance of the Elect
married to Catherine of Aragon, kills Cardial Wosley and St. thomas More, married Anne Boleyn, Act of Supremacy
St. Thomas More
refuses Act of Supremacy, imprisoned, beheaded
Last Words: "I die the King's good servant, but God's first."
too over after Mary I
attacked Catholic practices, solidifies Church of England as its own entity
Goals of Council of Trent
1. Correct Abuses and Strengthen Discipline
simony and indulgences, regulation for Bishops, edu. of Priests
Clarity of Doctrines that were under attack
Scripture and Sacred tradition are channels of divine revelation
faith and works are both necessary for salvation
original sin doesn't make man totally corrupt
we can merit good actions
All 7 Sacraments and 73 books of Scripture are valid
St. Peter of Canisius
Doctor of the Church, wrote 3 Catechisms (one for adults, one for children, one for students)
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