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Unit 5 Church History Test on December 3, 2010

Avignon Papacy Names

Babylonian Captivity, Avignon Papacy, Papal Exile

Avignon Papacy Years


A.P. Basic Definition

7 Popes reside in Avignon, France though they're still Bishops of Rome

Overview of A.P.

France grows in power, Pope Clement V leaves Rome

Reasons for the movement to Avignon

1. turmoil among noble families in Rome
2. Clement V was French in his sympathies, close to Philip, French himself
3. to assist in tensions b/w France and England

Urban V

tried to move back to Rome but caved under pressure

St. Catherine of Siena

intensive prayer and fasting, received stigmata, had a vision of Pope Gregory XI and his desire to move back to Rome, encouraged he moved back to Rome

Pope Gregory XI

returns to Rome in 1377, ends Avignon Papacy

Western Schism Names

Western Schism, Papal Schism

Western Schism Years


Basic Definition of Western Schism

time with 1 or 2 antipopes and confusion over who the real pope was


Gregory XI dies, Pope Urban VI validly elected Pope by French Cardinals (said it was unanimous and free; later say it wasn't)

Pope Urban VI

very strict/harsh on addressing issues - upsets French Cardinals

Clement VII

elected by French Cardinals post-election as Antipope; declare Urban VI invalid; creates confusion

1409 - Council of Pisa

Conciliarism heresy that upholds the authority of a council as greater than papal authority
2nd Antipope elected

16th EC of Constance

1 Antipope loses support, 1 Antipope revokes his claim, Pope Gregory XII (real Pope) agrees to abdicate (step down)
1417 - elect Pope Martin V - end of W. Schism


Election of Pope Martin V
end of W. Schism

15th Century

Good form vs. Evil form
Theocentric vs. Anthropocentric
God centered vs. Human centered

16th Century

emergence of Protestantism
Martin Luther, John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, Henry VIII

Martin Luther

Germany, Augustinian Monk
struggle with scrupulosity, saw human nature as corrupt, how can people possibly be worth salvation
95 Theses, Augsburg Confession, translated Bible into German

95 Theses

Wittenberg, 1517, addressed the issue of simony within indulgences and criticized the Church


Founded by Martin Luther
Sola Fide, Scriptura, Gratia

Sola Fide

salvation by "faith alone"

Sola Scriptura

"scripture alone" is the channel of divine revelation

Sola Gratia

by "grace alone" does any good occur


Augsburg Confession

John Calvin

France, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, Sola Scriptura, man is total savage, Double Predestination

Double Predestination

ppl are determined if they go to heaven or hell by God, ppl to heaven are "elect"

Jacobus Arminius (Post-Calvin)

said predestination is based on God's foreknowledge and of who will have faith

Calvin response to Arminius

Synod of Dort
Total Depravation
Universal Predestination
Limited Atonement
Irresistable Grace
Perseverance of the Elect

Ulrich Zwingli

Sola Fide, rejects papacy, attack Sacraments, inconoclast

Henry VIII

married to Catherine of Aragon, kills Cardial Wosley and St. thomas More, married Anne Boleyn, Act of Supremacy

Act of Supremacy

made Henry VIII head of Church and State

St. Thomas More

refuses Act of Supremacy, imprisoned, beheaded
Last Words: "I die the King's good servant, but God's first."

St. John Fisher

beheaded by Henry VIII

Edward I

king after Henry VIII, but died young due to illness

Mary I

took over after Edward I died
tried to restore Catholic practice - brutal = Bloody Mary

Elizabeth I

too over after Mary I
attacked Catholic practices, solidifies Church of England as its own entity

19th E.C. of Trent

called by Pope Paul III, 1545-1563

Goals of Council of Trent

1. Correct Abuses and Strengthen Discipline
simony and indulgences, regulation for Bishops, edu. of Priests

Clarity of Doctrines that were under attack

Scripture and Sacred tradition are channels of divine revelation
faith and works are both necessary for salvation
original sin doesn't make man totally corrupt
we can merit good actions
All 7 Sacraments and 73 books of Scripture are valid

St. Peter of Canisius

Doctor of the Church, wrote 3 Catechisms (one for adults, one for children, one for students)

St. Charles Borromeo

Bishop of Milan, model Bishop

St. Philip Neri

"Reformer of Rome"

St. Teresa of Avila

Doctor of the Church, reformer of the Carmelite Order

St. Ignatius of Loyola

Society of Jesus/Jesuits, taught Post-Trent

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