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Chemistry Chapter 7 part 2
Terms in this set (33)
who devised the valence bond model?
Linus Pauling devised the valence bond model in what year?
1962; for efforts to stop nuclear testing
Which year did Linus Pauling win the nobel prize? what for?
occurs when 2s orbital is mixed with 2p orbital to form two new sp hybrid orbitals
the greater the overlap of orbitals, the __________ the bond and the more potential energy is __________ as the bond is formed
refers to the sharing of common space
how many electrons with their spins unpaired may be shared in one set of overlapping orbitals?
1. one lobe is much larger than the other causing overlap in only one direction
2. bonds are stronger than ordinary bonds
the properties of hybrid orbitals:
by indicating with superscripts the numbers of each kind of atomic orbitals used to form the hybrid
how are the various kinds of hybrid orbitals identified?
in hybrid orbitals; 1 pair in double bond and 2 pairs in triple bond
where are extra electron pairs in multiple bonds located? how many pairs in a double bond? how many in a triple bond?
A bond that concentrates electron density along the line joining the bound nuclei
the bond that is formed by the sideways overlapping of two p orbitals, and provides electron density above and below a plane containing both of the bound nuclei
the sigma bonds that arise from he overlapping of orbitals
how is the shape of the molecular framework determined?
one sigma and one pi
one sigma and two pi
the elements in which period are able to form multiple bonds
two or more forms of the same element
1. elemental oxygen; used in respirators
2. ozone; blue color with pungent odor; formed by UV rays and lightening
2 allotropes of oxygen
A. soot; formed from coal
B. diamond; hardest substance known (many covalent bonds)
C. graphite; very soft, used as dry lubricant
3 allotropes of carbon
because pi bonds are not required
why are halogens diatomic
which group is found as 8 atoms bonded together
A. white: waxy, very reactive bc weak bonds (stored under oil)
B. red: used in explosives, fireworks, and matches
C. black: comes from burned white or red phosphorus
3 allotropes of Phosphorus
A. the number of electrons that the atom of the element needs to complete its octet
B. the preference of the heavier (and larger) nonmetals and metalloids for single bonds. This prevents them from forming diatomic molecules and causes them to form more complex structures
2 factors that determine elemental bonding
graphite consists of planar sheets held together by weak forces
diamond consist of 3D covalent structures
how does graphite differ from diamond?
a puckered S8 ring
what is the structure of elemental sulfur
tetrahedral P4 molecule
what is the structure of white phosphorus
partial positive and partial negative charge; have and unequal distribution of charge
form when two atoms bonded together are identical; no positive and negative charges; equal distribution of charge
direction of the pull
if bonds are arranged symmetrically around the central atom, the molecule is?
1. are the atoms attached to the central atom identical?; yes = polar or non polar ; no = polar
2. is there a symmetrical AX bond?; yes= non polar ; no= polar
2 questions when determining polar and non polar
a measure of the strength of a dipole
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