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HESI A2 - Reading Comprehension copy

Terms in this set (44)

Exams
Subjective exams measure your ability in several areas. Besides recall information, you must be able to realize content logically and intelligently express yourself in a clearly understood manner. Subjective test provide opportunity for students to show their broad knowledge of a subjective area. Answers may be in the form of paragraphs or lengthy essays.

When your review for an essay exam, concentrate on main ideas rather than details. Since essay tests are less to a few questions, they are likely to deal with more important ideas of a subject. Prepare a list of question you thing might be asked. Write an answer to each of your questions. Rather than writing complete sentence down your thoughts in outline form. doing so will help you organize the information so that you can express yourself clearly.

When you take the test, read through all the questions before you start to write. Allot time for each question, spending more time for questions worth the most points. Read each question carefully to determine exactly what is they asked. Pay attention to words such as define, illustrate, explain, list, compare, and contrast. Each work require a different type of response. Write a brief outlines of your answer on scrap paper or the back of the test. Make sure you include all the important ideas that are within the limits of the question. In other words, do not write more than is asked for each answer. When you write your answer, keep it specific and as brief as possible. In the introductory sentence it is often helpful to make a general statement that includes important points addressed in each question. Such a topic sentence serves as a framework for your answer. Then use your outline to develop the main point and subtopics. Add substance to your answer by including as many facts as possible to support your answer.

Check your paper before you submit it. Look for mistakes in grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation. Unless you are certain an answer is wrong, do not change it. Your answer is an educated guess and is usually your best chance of answering correctly.
Tesla

Croatian-born inventor Nikola Tesla is often called the "forgotten scientist". Although he invented the alternating current (AC) motor and developed an AC electricity generation system, he never received historical credit for many of his achievements, unlike one of his first employer and eventual nemesis, inventor Thomas Edison

Tesla made the first sketches of his idea for a brushless of his idea for a brushless AC motor while he was a student at the University of Prague in 1882. His interest in electricity generation led him to Paris where he was employed by the Continental Edison Company later that year to repair Edison's direct current (DC) power plants.

Two years later, Tesla immigrated to New York City and acquired a job as an engineer at Thomas Edison's headquarters in Manhattan. Edison was impressed with Tesla's work ethic and ingenuity. He challenged the young scientist to develop an improved design for his DC generators for $50,000. Tesla experimented for months, finally presenting Edison with the solution he needed. Edison reneged on the deal, telling Tesla that he didn't understand American humor. Tesla soon left Edison in order to begin his own electric light company

Tesla filed and was granted more than 30 patents for his inventions in 1887 and 1888. He soon had financial backing for his ideas from one of Edison' main competitors, Westinghouse. In the 1890's Tesla experimented with x-rays, developed a high-voltage electrical transformer call the Tesla coil, and demonstrated the propagation of radio waves two years before the "Father of Radio" Guglielmo Marconi. He was also the first to harness the mammoth potential energy of Niagara Falls. he worked with General Electric to install AC generators with turbines driven by the falling waters of the Niagara River, creating the first modern power plant

Although a brilliant scientist, Tesla was not an astute businessman. he created his own obscurity by relinguishing royalty rights for his inventions to major corporations for the purpose of raising funds for future projects.
Jazz has been called "the art of expression set to music", and "America's great contribution to music". It has functioned as popular art and enjoyed periods of fairly widespread public response, in the "jazz age" of the 1920s, in the "swing era" of the late 1930s and in the peak popularity of modern jazz in the late 1950s. The standard legend about Jazz is that it originated around the end of the 19th century in New Orleans and moved up the Mississippi River to Memphis, St. Louis, and finally to Chicago. It welded together the elements of Ragtime, marching band music, and the Blues. However, the influences of what led to those early sounds goes back to tribal African drum beats and European musical structures. Buddy Bolden, a New Orleans barber and cornet player, is generally considered to have been the first real Jazz musician, around 1891.
What made Jazz significantly different from the other earlier forms of music was the use of improvisation. Jazz displayed a break from traditional music where a composer wrote an entire piece of music on paper, leaving the musicians to break their backs playing exactly what was written on the score. In a Jazz piece, however, the song is simply a starting point, or sort of skeletal guide for the Jazz musicians to improvise around. Actually, many of the early Jazz musicians were bad sight readers and some couldn't even read music at all. Generally speaking, these early musicians couldn't make very much money and were stuck working menial jobs to make a living. The second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians included such memorable players as Joe Oliver, Kid Ory, and Jelly Roll Morton. These men formed small bands and took the music of earlier musicians, improved its complexity, and gained greater success. This music is known as "hot Jazz" due to the enormously fast speeds and rhythmic drive.
A young cornet player by the name of Louis Armstrong was discovered by Joe Oliver in New Orleans. He soon grew up to become one of the greatest and most successful musicians of all time, and later one of the biggest stars in the world. The impact of Armstrong and other talented early Jazz musicians changed the way we look at music.
1. The Passage answers which of the following questions?
(a) Why did Ragtime, marching band music, and the Blues lose popularity after about 1900?
(b) What were the origins of Jazz and how did it differ from other forms of music? CORRECT
(c) What has been the greatest contribution of cornet players to music in the twentieth century?
(d) Which early Jazz musicians most influenced the development of Blues music?

2. According to the passage, Jazz originated in
(a) Chicago
(b) St. Louis
(c) along the Mississippi river
(d) New Orleans CORRECT

3. The word "welded" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(a) squeezed
(b) bound CORRECT
(c) added
(d) stirred

4. Which of the following distinguished Jazz as a new form of musical expression?
(a) the use of cornets
(b) "hot Jazz"
(c) improvisation CORRECT
(d) New Orleans

5. The word "skeletal" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(a) framework CORRECT
(b) musical
(c) basic
(d) essential

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(a) many early Jazz musicians had poor sight
(b) there is no slow music in Jazz
(c) many early Jazz musicians had little formal musical training CORRECT
(d) the cornet is the most common musical instrument used in Jazz

7. The word "menial" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(a) mens
(b) attractive
(c) degrading CORRECT
(d) skilled

8. According to the passage, which of the following belonged to the second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians?
(a) Louis Armstrong
(b) Buddy Bolden
(c) St. Louis
(d) Joe Oliver CORRECT

9. All of the following are true EXCEPT
(a) the late 1930s was called the "swing era"
(b) "hot Jazz" is rhythmic
(c) Jazz has been said to be America's greatest contribution to music
(d) Joe Oliver is generally considered to be the first real Jazz musician CORRECT

10. The word "its" in line 21 refers to
(a) small bands
(b) earlier music CORRECT
(c) men
(d) earlier musicians

11. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(a) "improvisation" (line 12) CORRECT
(b) "traditional" (line 12)
(c) "composer" (line 12)
(d) "score" (line 14)
The Moon has been worshipped by primitive peoples and has inspired humans to create everything from lunar calendars to love sonnets, but what do we really know about it? The most accepted theory about the origin of the Moon is that it was formed of the debris from a massive collision with the young Earth about 4.6 billion years ago. A huge body, perhaps the size of Mars, struck the Earth, throwing out an immense amount of debris that coalesced and cooled in orbit around the Earth.
The development of Earth is inextricably linked to the moon; the Moon's gravitational influence upon the Earth is the primary cause of ocean tides. In fact, the Moon has more than twice the effect upon the tides than does the Sun. The Moon makes one rotation and completes a revolution around the Earth every 27 days, 7 hours, and 43 minutes. This synchronous rotation is caused by an uneven distribution of mass in the Moon (essentially, it is heavier on one side than the other) and has allowed the Earth's gravity to keep one side of the Moon permanently facing Earth. It is an average distance from Earth of 384,403 km.
The Moon has no atmosphere; without an atmosphere, the Moon has nothing to protect it from meteorite impacts, and thus the surface of the Moon is covered with impact craters, both large and small. The Moon also has no active tectonic or volcanic activity, so the erosive effects of atmospheric weathering, tectonic shifts, and volcanic upheavals that tend to erase and reform the Earth's surface features are not at work on the Moon. In fact, even tiny surface features such as the footprint left by an astronaut in the lunar soil are likely to last for millions of years, unless obliterated by a chance meteorite strike. The surface gravity of the Moon is about one-sixth that of the Earth's. Therefore, a man weighing 82 kilograms on Earth would only weigh 14 kilograms on the Moon.
The geographical features of the Earth most like that of the Moon are, in fact, places such as the Hawaiian volcanic craters and the huge meteor crater in Arizona. The climate of the Moon is very unlike either Hawaii or Arizona, however; in fact the temperature on the Moon ranges between 123 degrees C. to -233 degrees C.
12. What is the passage primarily about?
(a) the Moon's effect upon the Earth
(b) the origin of the Moon
(c) what we know about the Moon and its differences to Earth CORRECT
(d) a comparison of the Moon and the Earth

13. The word "massive" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(a) unavoidable
(b) dense
(c) huge CORRECT
(d) impressive

14. The word "debris" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(a) rubbish CORRECT
(b) satellites
(c) moons
(d) earth

15. According to the passage, the Moon is
(a) older than the Earth
(b) protected by a dense atmosphere
(c) composed of a few active volcanoes
(d) the primary cause of Earth's ocean tides CORRECT

16. The word "uneven " in line 11 is closest in meaning to
(a) Heavier
(b) Equally distributed
(c) Orderly
(d) Not uniform CORRECT

17. Why does the author mention "impact craters" in line 16?
(a) to show the result of the Moon not having an atmosphere CORRECT
(b) to show the result of the Moon not having active tectonic or volcanic activity
(c) to explain why the Moon has no plant life because of meteorites
(d) to explain the corrosive effects of atmospheric weathering

18. The word "erase" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(a) change
(b) impact
(c) obliterate CORRECT
(d) erupt

19. A person on the Moon would weigh less than on the Earth because
(a) of the composition of lunar soil
(b) the surface gravity of the Moon is less CORRECT
(c) the Moon has no atmosphere
(d) the Moon has no active tectonic or volcanic activity

20. All of the following are true about the Moon EXCEPT
(a) it has a wide range of temperatures
(b) it is heavier on one side than the other
(c) it is unable to protect itself from meteorite attacks
(d) it has less effect upon the tides than the Sun CORRECT

21. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(a) the Moon is not able to support human life CORRECT
(b) if the Moon had no gravitational influence, the Earth would not have tides
(c) people living in Hawaii and Arizona would feel at home on the Moon
(d) Mars could have been formed in a similar way to the Moon
People of Hispanic origin were on the North American continent centuries before settlers arrived from Europe in the early 1600s and the thirteen colonies joined together to form the United States in the late 1700s. The first census of the new nation was conducted in 1790, and counted about four million people, most of whom were white. Of the white citizens, more than 80% traced their ancestry back to England. There were close to 700,000 slaves and about 60,000 "free Negroes". Only a few Native American Indians who paid taxes were included in the census count, but the total Native American population was probably about one million.
By 1815, the population of the United States was 8.4 million. Over the next 100 years, the country took in about 35 million immigrants, with the greatest numbers coming in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1882, 40,000 Chinese arrived, and between 1900 and 1907, there were more than 30,000 Japanese immigrants. But by far, the largest numbers of the new immigrants were from central, eastern, and southern Europe.
An enormous amount of racial and ethnic assimilation has taken place in the United States. In 1908, play-write Israel Zangwill first used the term "melting pot" to describe the concept of a place where many races melted in a crucible and re-formed to populate a new land. Some years during the first two decades of the 20th century, there were as many as one million new immigrants per year, an astonishing 1 percent of the total population of the United States.
In 1921, however, the country began to limit immigration, and the Immigration Act of 1924 virtually closed the door. The total number of immigrants admitted per year dropped from as many as a million to only 150,000. A quota system was established that specified the number of immigrants that could come from each country. It heavily favored immigrants from northern and western Europe and severely limited everyone else. This system remained in effect until 1965, although after World War II, several exceptions were made to the quota system to allow in groups of refugees.
22. Why did the author write the passage?
(a) to outline the ways immigration has been restricted
(b) to emphasize the impact of migrants from Europe
(c) to explain and give examples of the concept of a "melting pot"
(d) to summarize the main features of immigration CORRECT

23. According to the passage, which ancestry predominated at the time of the first census?
(a) Native Americans
(b) Negroes
(c) English CORRECT
(d) Hispanic

24. The word "ancestry" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(a) origins CORRECT
(b) inheritance
(c) color
(d) freedom

25. The word "their" in line 5 refers to which of the following
(a) immigrants
(b) people of Hispanic origin
(c) white citizens CORRECT
(d) Native Americans

26. Which of the following is true, according to the passage?
(a) a quota system was in place from 1908
(b) a peak period of immigration was in the late 1800s and early 1900s CORRECT
(c) slaves were not counted in the first census
(d) only those who paid taxes were included in the first census

27. The number of immigrants taken in over the 100 years to 1915 was
(a) probably about 1 million
(b) about 35 million CORRECT
(c) 8.4 million
(d) about 4 million

28. The word "concept" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(a) location
(b) type
(c) complexity
(d) thought CORRECT

29. The word "virtually" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(a) effectively CORRECT
(b) occasionally
(c) thoroughly
(d) undeservedly

30. Which of the following is NOT true about immigrants
(a) they were subjected to an official quota in the Immigration Act from 1924
(b) during the 1900s immigrants numbered 1 percent of the total population CORRECT
(c) settlers of Hispanic origin arrived centuries before those from Europe
(d) numbers began to be limited from 1921

31. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage
(a) preserving a developing "American" culture was a major factor leading to the introduction of the quota system CORRECT
(b) racial and ethnic assimilation did not occur as planned
(c) racial and ethnic tensions would have increased if the quota system had not been introduced
(d) the quota system was introduced to limit population growth
Considered the most influential architect of his time, Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) was born in the small rural community of Richland Center, Wisconsin. He entered the University of Wisconsin at the age of 15 as a special student, studying engineering because the school had no course in architecture. At the age of 20 he then went to work as a draughtsman in Chicago in order to learn the traditional, classical language of architecture. After marrying into a wealthy business family at the age of 21, Wright set up house in an exclusive neighborhood in Chicago, and after a few years of working for a number of architectural firms, set up his own architectural office.
For twenty years he brought up a family of six children upstairs, and ran a thriving architectural practice of twelve or so draughtsmen downstairs. Here, in an idyllic American suburb, with giant oaks, sprawling lawns, and no fences, Wright built some sixty rambling homes by the year 1900. He became the leader of a style known as the "Prairie" school - houses with low-pitched roofs and extended lines that blended into the landscape and typified his style of "organic architecture".
By the age of forty-one, in 1908, Wright had achieved extraordinary social and professional success. He gave countless lectures at major universities, and started his Taliesin Fellowship - a visionary social workshop in itself. In 1938 he appeared on the cover of Time magazine, and later, on a two cent stamp. The most spectacular buildings of his mature period were based on forms borrowed from nature, and the intentions were clearly romantic, poetic, and intensely personal. Examples of these buildings are Tokyo's Imperial Hotel (1915-22: demolished 1968), and New York City's Guggenheim Museum (completed 1959). He continued working until his death in 1959, at the age of 92, although in his later years, he spent as much time giving interviews and being a celebrity, as he did in designing buildings. Wright can be considered an essentially idiosyncratic architect whose influence was immense but whose pupils were few.
32. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?
(a) the development of modern architecture in America
(b) the contributions of the "Prairie" School to modern architecture
(c) the life and achievements of a famous architect
(d) the influence of the style of "organic architecture" in America

33. Frank Lloyd Wright first worked as a draughtsman because
(a) for twenty years he lived above his shop and employed draughtsmen
(b) to learn the language of architecture CORRECT
(c) that is what he studied at the University of Wisconsin
(d) that is the work of new employees in architectural firms

34. The word "some" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
(a) around CORRECT
(b) over
(c) nearly
(d) exactly

35. According to the passage, an idyllic American suburb is
(a) based on forms borrowed from nature
(b) blended into the landscape
(c) giant oaks, sprawling lawns, and no fences CORRECT
(d) houses with low-pitched reefs and extended lines

36. The word "blended" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(a) dug
(b) cut
(c) imposed
(d) merged CORRECT

37. The word "itself" in line 17 refers to
(a) social workshop
(b) Taliesin Fellowship CORRECT
(c) He
(d) Major universities

38. The word "idiosyncratic" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(a) idiotic
(b) idealistic
(c) individualistic CORRECT
(d) independent

39. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(a) the Taliesin Fellowship was a grant of money
(b) many of Wright's architectural ideas have not been taken up by others CORRECT
(c) Wright used his wife's money to set up his own architectural office in an exclusive neighborhood in Chicago
(d) Some of Wright's most notable buildings have been demolished because they were not popular

40. All of the following about Frank Lloyd Wright are true EXCEPT
(a) he became the leader of a style known as "organic architecture" CORRECT
(b) he died at the age of 92
(c) he commenced university studies at the age of 15
(d) some of his most spectacular buildings were not in America
The healing power of maggots is not new. Human beings have discovered it several times. The Maya are said to have used maggots for therapeutic purposes a thousand years ago. As early as the sixteenth century, European doctors noticed that soldiers with maggot-infested wounds healed well. More recently, doctors have realized that maggots can be cheaper and more effective than drugs in some respects, and these squirming larvae have, at times, enjoyed a quiet medical renaissance. The problem may have more to do with the weak stomachs of those using them than with good science. The modern heydey of maggot therapy began during World War I, when an American doctor named William Baer was shocked to notice that two soldiers who had lain on a battlefield for a week while their abdominal wounds became infested with thousands of maggots, had recovered better than wounded men treated in the military hospital. After the war, Baer proved to the medical establishment that maggots could cure some of the toughest infections.
In the 1930s hundreds of hospitals used maggot therapy. Maggot therapy requires the right kind of larvae. Only the maggots of blowflies (a family that includes common bluebottles and greenbottles) will do the job; they devour dead tissue, whether in an open wound or in a corpse. Some other maggots, on the other hand, such as those of the screw-worm eat live tissue. They must be avoided. When blowfly eggs hatch in a patient's wound, the maggots eat the dead flesh where gangrene-causing bacteria thrive. They also excrete compounds that are lethal to bacteria they don't happen to swallow. Meanwhile, they ignore live flesh, and in fact, give it a gentle growth-stimulating massage simply by crawling over it. When they metamorphose into flies, they leave without a trace - although in the process, they might upset the hospital staff as they squirm around in a live patient. When sulfa drugs, the first antibiotics, emerged around the time of World War II, maggot therapy quickly faded into obscurity.
41. Why did the author write the passage?
(a) because of the resistance to using the benefits of maggots
(b) to demonstrate the important contribution of William Baer
(c) to outline the healing power of maggots CORRECT
(d) to explain treatment used before the first antibiotics

42. The word "renaissance" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(a) revival CORRECT
(b) resistance
(c) support
(d) condemnation

43. According to the passage, William Bayer was shocked because
(a) two soldiers had lain on the battlefield for a week
(b) the medical establishment refused to accept his findings
(c) the soldiers abdominal wounds had become infested with maggots
(d) the soldiers had recovered better than those in a military hospital CORRECT

44. Which of the following is true, according to the passage?
(a) sulfa drugs have been developed from maggots
(b) maggots only eat dead tissue
(c) bluebottles and greenbottles produce maggots
(d) blowfly maggots only eat dead tissue CORRECT

45. The word "devour" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(a) chew
(b) clean
(c) change
(d) consume CORRECT

46. The word "thrive" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(a) prosper
(b) eat
(c) move
(d) grow CORRECT

47. The word "metamorphose" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(a) disappear
(b) grow
(c) change CORRECT
(d) move

48. The word "they" in line 23 refers to
(a) flies
(b) maggots CORRECT
(c) gangrene-causing bacteria
(d) live patients

49. All of the following are true EXCEPT
(a) maggots come from eggs CORRECT
(b) maggots eat bacteria
(c) maggots are larvae
(d) William Bayer discovered a new type of maggot


50. What can be inferred from the passage about maggots?
(a) modern science might be able to develop new drugs from maggots that would fight infection
(b) maggot therapy would have been more popular if antibiotics had not been discovered CORRECT
(c) William Baer later changed his mind about the value of using maggot therapy
(d) sulfa drugs were developed from maggots