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Terms in this set (155)
We hear a tuning fork when it is struck because it
causes compression and rarefaction of air molecules.
Cultures that emphasize the importance of individual rights, goals, and accomplishments are considered to be
Your brain receives information about your body orientation and movement from
the vestibular organ.
On your skin, the level of sensitivity is controlled by the
number of nerve cells.
Which of the following is an area where women excel in performance as compared to men?
fine motor skills
The term "psyche" when translated from the Greek is most closely associated with the term
Persons born into different cultures
are taught very different values from birth.
Psychologists who study the role of the brain in psychological processes use the
Dizygotic twins are as genetically alike as
A ______ is a bundle of many long neurons that are located outside of the brain and spinal cord.
What is the major function of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup of the middle ear?
to amplify vibrations and pass them on to the inner ear
Many research studies use college student volunteers as subjects. What concern does this practice raise?
The results may not generalize to non-college populations.
In a memory study, you present a color that is presented alongside a number. These items are presented together, at the same time. Later you present the color, and ask the participant to recall (remember) the number. This is called a/n _____ task.
How does contemporary psychoanalysis differ from the original form of psychoanalysis?
Contemporary psychoanalysts place greater importance on motives other than sexual or aggressive.
The area critical for processing visual information is the
"We passively let experiences teach us about the world and we let experiences mold our personalities." Which of the following is true regarding this statement?
Most psychologists would reject this statement.
One of the key founders of the study of genetics was
If the most frequently occurring age in your classroom belongs to 19-year-olds, then 19 is the ______ age of the class.
Which school of psychology was founded and developed by Sigmund Freud?
Wernicke's aphasia results in
patients who can speak normally but cannot make sense out of language.
Genetically speaking, blue eyes, light hair, normal vision, and freckles are the result of
Where are the basilar membrane and the organ of Corti located?
The key component of empirical evidence this that it must be based on _____ behavior.
The major purpose of the iris is to
regulate the amount of light entering the eye.
Which variable depends upon the effects of the independent variable?
the dependent variable
When a neuron is at its resting state, what is the status of sodium ions?
They are not let into the neuron.
In psychological research, the idea of informed consent is that participants
need to be aware of the risks and benefits of participating in research.
Which of the following is a characteristic of Down syndrome?
Jane is having trouble sleeping. As she sits in bed looking around the darkened room, she notices that her peripheral vision seems to be better than her central vision. This is because peripheral vision
depends on the rods.
Gate control theory is associated with
A change in the wavelength of light would result in a change in
Objects that resemble one another are often perceived as a group. This is the perceptual principle of
What have twin studies revealed about intelligence?
Intelligence is partly influenced by heredity.
A psychologist is developing a theoretical explanation about a behavior. To which goal of psychology are theoretical explanations important?
If the experimenter treats the experimental group differently than the control group, the experimental group might behave differently. This unwanted effect is called
Strictly speaking, overt behaviors are actions that
you can directly observe.
A researcher wants to study the relationship between lifespan and cigarette smoking. For this study, he cannot ethically manipulate people to smoke cigarettes, so the researcher must rely on a correlational study. Based on the correlational approach, which of the following statements would be an appropriate conclusion?
Smoking cigarettes is related to decreases in lifespan.
Which of the following statements is true regarding men and sex?
Men think about sex more often than women.
Young adults of both sexes, when married or in committed relationships, prefer
If a neuron is polarized, which of the following conditions exists?
The inside of the cell has a more negative charge than the outside.
Several lab groups found a strong positive correlation between number of hours spent on campus and grades. What can you conclude from this information?
There is a numerical relationship between the two variables.
Which division of the nervous system is composed of all the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord?
peripheral nervous system
Traits controlled by large number of genes are called
If a stroke were to occur in Broca's area, a person might have difficulty speaking, but would likely understand what is being said to them. This disorder is called
Most psychologists agree that biology
influences human behavior.
Wernicke's area is located in the ______ lobe, while Broca's area is located in the ______ lobe.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are divisions of the
autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following would best describe what a correlational study would accomplish?
Compare the amount of violence on TV to the amount of aggressive behavior in children.
Regarding brain function, the term plasticity refers to the phenomenon of when the cortex is damaged
other areas of the brain can take over the functions of the damaged area.
Which of the following is an example of a descriptive method of doing research?
If items on an intelligence test can have more than one correct answer, the test is lacking the very important characteristic of
In a discussion of intelligence, the concept of "g" refers to
Your best friend has been in a motorcycle accident. At the hospital, you are told that he is likely to experience retrograde amnesia. What will this type of memory loss look like?
The loss of memories before or during the accident.
When it is stated that natural concepts are good prototypes, a good prototype is actually a good
The sleep disorder of narcolepsy occurs when individuals
falls unexpectedly into a deep sleep in the middle of daily activities.
Memory theories based on the similarities between the operation of the human brain and the computer are called _______ theories.
In the levels of processing model, STM is to LTM as
shallow processing is to deep processing.
In general, sleep consumes ______ of our lives.
Several efforts have been made to teach apes human language. Although there have been varying degrees of success, the main issue seems to be whether apes
can generate new combinations of language.
If a parent threatens a punishment and then backs down when the child begs for mercy, what will the parent accomplish?
The begging behavior will be negatively reinforced.
Compared to continuous schedules of reinforcement, partial schedules of reinforcement
are more resistant to extinction.
Of the following, which occurs in your dreams most often?
If you are going to use punishment, which of the following would be recommendations based on psychological research?
Do not use physical punishment.
If you describe an event in detail including descriptions of the setting, objects, colors, smells, sounds, etc., you are probably using
Mary, whose hobby is the study of whales, tells her teacher all about the buluga whale, even though she has never actually seen one. Mary's information is stored as a(n) _______ memory.
The reaction to the excessive use of stimulants that results in distorted thinking, confused emotions, and intense suspiciousness is known as
Some guidelines for chemotherapy patients have been developed through our understanding of how learned taste aversions are conditioned. Which of the following would help a chemotherapy patient avoid a learned taste aversion?
fasting before a treatment and playing video games
When a sexual fetish develops, the conditioned stimulus is
a nonsexual object.
What importance do intelligence test scores have in modern society?
Persons with higher intelligence tend to perform better in complex jobs.
A substance is considered an inhalant if when inhaled it produces
a sense of intoxication.
Slot machines are set to pay off on the average of once in every 1,000,000 plays. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement
Coca-Cola's original ingredient, used to market it as a "nerve tonic," was _______, and was replaced by _______ in 1906.
When the original source of learning is removed and a particular response diminishes, ______ has occurred.
When learning a new list of words, the technique that involves the creation of more associations between the new words and existing memories is called
n a short-term memory experiment, Peterson and Peterson asked experimental participants to remember a single combination of three consonants while counting backward by threes. The purpose of the counting was to
prevent rehearsal from prolonging memory retention
Creativity is the ability to produce outcomes that are ______ and ______.
novel; valued by others.
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ from each other in that operant conditioning
occurs only if the response being conditioned has been emitted.
Bandura's term for learning by watching others is
At the beginning of a learning process using positive reinforcement, it is important to
use consistent reinforcement
When researchers conclude that punishment has "generalized inhibiting effect," what does that mean?
: Most behaviors tend to stop after punishment, including the positive behaviors.
The interference theory of forgetting suggests that ______ the to-be-remembered item.
other memories impede the retrieval of
In the United States, about 1 in ______ adolescents and adults have a substance abuse problem during some point in their lives.
Language codes are to semantic content as _______ is to _______
surface structure; deep structure
Primary reinforcer is to secondary reinforcer as
unlearned is to learned.
When we use a certain cognitive process to reach a goal temporarily blocked by an obstacle, we are using
Reinforcing the behavior of a model will increase the probability of the same behavior in the observer. This is called
Which theory of the organization of long-term memory claims that concepts are linked by experience?
the spreading activation mode
Bandura's famous study with the children and the Bobo doll was a demonstration of
Research has shown that when drawing ambiguous figures from memory, people will alter the drawing to better suit the labels that have been assigned to the drawings. This research has been interpreted as support for the
schema theory of forgetting.
The willingness to consider unconventional approaches, to use imagination, and to attempt to develop new definitions of problems are central characteristics of
"Discovering gold is exciting" and "It is exciting to discover gold" are statements that may mean the same thing, but they have different
Which of the following best describes the language of bees?
limited by inheritance
What did Freud consider to be the "royal road to the unconscious"?
The spreading activation model explains how _______ are formed.
Those who wish to reach a more perfect state of consciousness often engage in
During a night of sleep, when does REM sleep occur?
n about four to six episodes distributed across the night's sleep
Jill reminisced about her first date and how she felt when she received her first kiss. Memories associated with life experiences like Jill's are called
Which of the following is a characteristic of an altered state of consciousness?
Which of the following outcomes does marijuana smoking share with cigarette smoking?
increases to the risk of lung cancer
The idea that a person must map or identify common characteristics between situations in order to solve problems comes from ______ theory of intelligent behavior
A person who dresses in the clothes of the opposite sex practices
When researchers discuss the importance of proximity on the development of romantic relationships, they are referring to
You are not even considering the stressful, unacceptable desires in your consciousness, and you don't even know what you are not considering. This defense mechanism is known as
Abnormal behavior is defined in terms of ______ rather than _______.
f a person is asked to explain why she did not follow instructions, she is very likely to perceive and report her own behavior in terms of
According to research, signs for safe behavior like wearing seat belts when riding in cars are
effective when used consistently
Pat normally avoids working with people outside her ethnic group, but she recently worked with Barb and found her to be unlike the others. What effect will Pat's attitude toward Barb have on her prejudice toward other people of different ethnicity?
Pat's overall prejudice will not change.
In which of the following situations is it appropriate for a therapist to breach confidentiality?
a court order
In defining hyperactivity-impulsivity, which of the following would qualify as a characteristic of hyperactivity-impulsivity?
often leaves seat when should remain seated
Which of the following concepts helps to explain why a group of bystanders would not help another person in need?
diffusion of responsibility
Which of the following somatoform disorders is the most dramatic?
The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical of Mental Disorder (DSM) was published in
Unwanted sexual advances, unwanted sexually suggestive comments, and sexual coercion are all forms ofUnwanted sexual advances, unwanted sexually suggestive comments, and sexual coercion are all forms of
When Brenda showed up at her supervisor's party, she noticed she had dressed rather formally and everyone else had dressed casually. She quickly went home, changed, and returned. Brenda's behavior is best explained by
Side effects of drugs occur because
more than one neurotransmitter is manipulated by the medication.
n dissociative identity disorder, the individual's original personality is usually
moralistic and unhappy.
When an attitude and a behavior are not consistent with each other, we feel
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the discontinuity hypothesis of abnormality?
Alcoholism is a disease, not a character flaw.
When a person thinks, feels, and acts toward something in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way, a(n) ________ has developed.
When a therapist and client act as if they were people in a problematic social situation, the therapist is employing the ______ technique.
In a study, autonomic arousal was measured while one group received electric shock 95 % of the time, a second received electric shock 50%of the time, and a third received electric shock 5% of the time. The group that was shocked 5% of the time showed the most arousal due to the influence of what factor?
After your checkup, your physician tells you that you must lower your life change units. Specifically, she is trying to tell you to
: lower your stress level.
Regular aerobic exercise can _______ blood pressure and _______ blood cholesterol levels.
How does the sympathetic nervous system respond during the alarm reaction of the general adaptation syndrome?
It increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles.
How do Puerto Ricans living in the United States compare to Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico in terms of depression?
Those who immigrate have higher rates of depression.
To change the way the body functions is one method in treating maladaptive behavioral problems. This general approach is called ________ therapy.
Michele recently went back to work after spending 12 years raising her children at home. She is having some anxiety over the changes in her life. What kind of therapy is geared toward helping people like Michele?
ndividuals who fall far short of who they would like to be are more likely to experience _______ compared to those who meet their own expectations.
The idea that when in a group we tend to behave like others in the group is known as
For therapy to be ethical, therapist and client must agree on the ________ of the psychotherapy.
Sigrid is feeling stress because she is afraid of losing her job to downsizing. What is the source of Sigrid's stress?
When resistance occurs in therapy, what event is taking place?
The client will not share deep personal problems.
Which of the following factors would increase the likelihood of group conformity?
when the group is unanimous
In the context of social psychology, social roles tell people
how to behave.
Jennifer canceled her next appointment with her analyst after a particularly disturbing session. The analyst would probably suggest Jennifer's behavior is an example of
Going to college means that you will meet new friends, gain freedom, increase job options, and so on. It also means the possibility of failure, leaving old friends, and so on. Thus, going to college may present a(n)
multiple approach-avoidance conflict.
When the term insanity is used to determine whether or not a person should stand trial, it is used in the context of
Which of the following is a characteristic of sexual harassment?
: requests for sexual favors
What is the relationship between the ethical use of a treatment and its evaluation?
The effectiveness of a treatment must be evaluated in some way.
Which of the following is a characteristic of all personality disorders?
The disorders are difficult to treat.
Suppose you have a choice between staying home alone for the weekend or going to visit your aunt, neither of which you really want to do. Which type of conflict are you experiencing?
In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, a person must choose between ______ outcomes.
John is widely regarded as a workaholic. He has not had a day off in the last five years and goes to work even when he is ill. On most days, he is driven to produce at least twice as much as anyone else. John's pattern of behavior is consistent with __________ personality.
: the Type A
The general prejudgment of a person based on inappropriate criteria (such as race or gender) is formally called
People who are low in omega-3 fatty acids are more likely to be
The technique from persuasion called ______ means that a person makes a small request first to get you to agree, then makes a larger request second.
"I realize that everyone is talking about me, mostly behind my back. Yesterday I read the paper and found that all the reporters were writing specifically about me. I found coded messages in several articles, which of course only I could decipher." Which disorder is the person in question most likely to be diagnosed with?
According to the ethics of psychotherapy, the choices for treatment methods should be
carefully considered on an individual basis.
nterpersonal psychotherapy is a brief form of psychotherapy that usually lasts
12 to 16 weeks.
Which of the following was used to explain why Americans eat so poorly?
lack of knowledge about healthy foods
The concept of ______ refers to the psychological experience of one's ______.
If you knew someone with an extremely violent temper and aggressive attitude who became a boxer, you might suspect that the person was engaged in
A person's ______ is defined by the possession of either male or female genitalia.
The term "maturation" refers to systematic changes of the body brought about by
Variations in a trait based upon spontaneous changes in a gene are called
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