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Chapter 9

The safest way to meet vitamin A needs is by

consuming a variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables

Which of the following snacks provides the most vitamin C?
A. Vanilla ice cream topped with sliced strawberries
B. Whole wheat crackers with peanut butter
C. Baked apples with cinnamon and brown sugar
D. Grilled cheese sandwich


Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?
A. Got Milk?
B. Five-A-Day
C. Beef: It's What's for Dinner
D. Fight Bac!


Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?
A. vitamin C
B. vitamin D
C. vitamin A
D. vitamin E


An atom's nucleus has a

positive charge

Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and DNA inside cells, from damage?

Vitamin E

In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by


Glutathion peroxidase converts

peroxides into water.

Free radicals are generated by

normal metabolic processes.

Beta-carotene is
a. one form of vitamin A.

b. one form of vitamin E.

c. a precursor to vitamin A.

d. a precursor to vitamin E.


Which of the following is not accounted for in the calculation of RAEs?
a. Preformed vitamin A

b. Alpha-carotene

c. Beta-carotene

d. Lutein


The bioavailability of carotenoids is affected by

a. cooking.

b. consumption with meat products.

c. soil mineral content.

d. exposure to acid.


Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?


Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?
a. Vegetarians

b. Alcoholics

c. Older adults

d. Smokers


An average severing of which food provides the most vitamin A?


The vitamin C content of foods can be decreased by?

All choices are correct

Most vitamin A is stored in the?


Which of the following groups is at high risk for negative consequences of marginal vitamin E status?

Preterm Infants

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires?

Vitamin C

A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is?


George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?


All of the following can be described as functional foods
a. milk enriched with CLA, a dietary oil that may improve immune function.

b. a granola bar with added calcium to improve bone health.

c. a granola bar with added psyllium, a soluble fiber that may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

d. sweet potatoes, which contain beta-carotene, a cancer-fighting antioxidant.


Vitamin E functions as an


Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of?


Antioxidants donate electrons to

free radicals

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?


Replacing animal fats with plants oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also?

increase vitamin E intake

Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it?

a. acts as a blood thinner.

b. prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

c. relaxes blood vessel walls.

d. prevents sodium retention.


Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

Vitamin C

The most bioavailable source of vitamin E is

plant oil

Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?

a. Orange

b. Apricot

c. Cauliflower

d. Potatoes


Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?

Vitamin A

Vitamin C enhances the absorption of?


Vitamin C participates in the recycling of

Vitamin E

Vitamin E aids the absorption of

Vitamin A

Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?


An average serving of which food provides the most vitamin A?


Vitamin C contributes to bone health by virtue of its role in?
a. antioxidant reactions.

b. collagen synthesis.

c. immune function.

d. mineral absorption.


Mrs. Davis is a 70-year-old white female who just had a DEXA measurement to assess her bone density. Her T-score of -2.1 indicates


The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is?

fortified milk

______________ inhibit osteoclast activity to prevent bone loss.


Which of the following would be the best source of vitamin D for a person following a vegan diet?

VitaminD- fortified Milk

Which of the following is not a function of calcium?

a. Muscle contraction

b. Appetite regulation

c. Blood clotting

d. Normal nerve transmission


Calcium absorption is decreased by all of the following except:
a. phytic acid.

b. oxalic acid.

c. tannins.

d. glucose.


Calcium absorption is increased by all of the following except:

old age

Regarding use of calcium supplements, which of the following is true?

a. Supplements containing oyster shell and dolomite are recommended for their high bioavailability.

b. Intakes over 500 milligrams per dose may interfere with absorption of iron and zinc.

c. For maximum absorbability, any form of calcium supplements should be taken between meals.

d. The USP label warns consumers that the supplement may contain high levels of lead or aluminum.


The childhood disease rickets is due to a deficiency of

Vitamin D

Food sources of calcium are superior to supplemental sources because
a. food sources are less likely to be contaminated by harmful minerals.

b. many people find it difficult to adhere to a supplement regimen.

c. food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals.

d. All of these choices are correct.


The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is

milk and dairy products

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

Vitamin D

Higher intakes of all of the following are associated with increased bone mass except:
a. calcium.

b. vitamin D.

c. vitamin C.

d. sodium.


Magnesium deficiency causes all of the following except:
a. irregular heartbeat.

b. muscle pain.

c. seizures.

d. anemia.


Of the following, the mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
a. calcium.

b. phosphorus.

c. iron.

d. copper.


For prevention of osteoporosis, strength training is
a. recommended because the stress on bones stimulates bone maintenance.

b. recommended because it decreases estrogen levels.

c. not recommended because it increases fracture risk.

d. not recommended because it increases testosterone levels.


What is magnesium's primary function
a. It acts as the carrier for calcium absorption

b. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis

c. It maintains mucus production in the digestive tract

d. It is important for nerve and heart function


Which would you expect to furnish the largest amount of calcium?

1 ounce of cheese

Soft bones resulting from a deficiency of vitamin D in adulthood is known as?


Vitamin K is important for
a. activates proteins that bind calcium.

b. activates blood clotting factors.

c. enhances absorption of dietary calcium.

d. enhances absorption of dietary phosphorus.bone health because it


In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

bones and teeth

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because it can be

formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun

Which of the following populations is most susceptible to vitamin K deficiency?

a. Vegans

b. Preschool children who are picky eaters

c. Children with cystic fibrosis

d. Older adults


The mixture of calcium and phosphorus that mineralizes bone it called?
a. dentin.

b. calcium citrate

c. calcium carbonate.

d. hydroxyapatite.


All of the following populations are at risk for poor magnesium status except:


Reduced blood calcium levels would result from actions of


The most accurate method of assessing bone health is

dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

Magnesium is required for
a. bone health.

b. cardiovascular health.

c. energy-yielding reactions.

d. All of these choices are correct.


The ability of the skin to synthesize Vitamin D is

decreased by the use of sunscreen

To promote bone health, exclusively breastfed infants require

supplemental vitamin D

Bone remodeling refers to a continual
a. continual degradation and regeneration of bone.

b. loss of height that occurs with aging.

c. growth at the ends of long bones.

d. use of metal pins to repair broken bones.


This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however, it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities


Type 1 Osteoporosis most dramatically effects the

trabecular bone

The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is
a. adequate bone building nutrients.

b. estrogen and increasing calcium.

c. increasing calcium.

d. increasing calcium and vitamin D.


Postmenopausal women are more prone to fractures than premenopausal women primarily because

low estrogen levels accelerate bone loss

The network of protein fibers within bone is called the?

bone matrix

Exceedingly the UL for phosphorus can lead to

kidney damage

In women, bone loss begins around age


A promising strategy to help other countries increase food resources is to use

"green revolution" technologies.

Which of the following is true of semistarvation? A. Impairment does not occur if there are no clinical symptoms.
B. Often the first sign that tissues are being affected is a biochemical change that may be detectable by a blood test.
C. Physical symptoms often appear before evidence of biochemical changes.
D. Action to correct undernutrition should only be taken when clinical symptoms are detected.


Approximately how many Americans live at or near the poverty level of $18,400 annually for a family of four?

33 million

Which of the following is the best approach to preventing famine in developing nations?

Increase the productivity of rural people by teaching them farming methods so they can build agricultural surpluses to eat and sell.

The program developed in the 1960s to help increase availability of foods to entire families is the

Food Stamp Program

Which of the following is true about the type of person who gets AIDs?

Anyone can get it

Impaired development or function that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients needed for optimal growth, development, and body function is best termed


The major cause of undernutrition in the United States is?


The majority of hungry people live in?


The single most effective health advantage for people wherever they live is?

Safe and convenient water supply

Which of the following is not true about AIDS?

After infection with the HIV virus, AIDS symptoms generally begin showing within a year.

What is the term to describe failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that either fails to meet or greatly exceeds nutritional needs?
A. Undernutrition
B. Overnutrition
C. Emaciation
D. Malnutrition


All of the following are effects of semistarvation except:

lack of hunger and appetite

The Special Supplemental Feeding Program for WIC

a. provides breakfast for school children.

b. provides food vouchers and nutrition education to low-income pregnant and lactating women and their young children.

c. has not been shown to be cost effective.

d. has not been shown to reduce the numbers of low-birth-weight babies.


Homeless children suffer high rates of all of the following medical conditions except

poor vision

Which of the following is not true about "new biotechnology"?
A. It has no beneficial applications that are without significant risks.
B. Most of the possible risks of its use are uncertain at this time.
C. Most soybeans produced in the United States are genetically engineered.
D. It is unlikely, at this point in time, that it will be a helpful solution to the undernutrition problem in developing nations.


Based on body weight comparisons, at 6 months of age a child's kcalorie per kilogram body weight needs are approximately how many times higher than adult needs?


It is impractical to introduce solid foods into an infant's diet before 4 to 6 months of age, because until that time:

head and neck control are not established

Teenagers are at risk of deficiency in which of the following nutrients?

calcium and iron

In the United States, more than _____ percent of school-age children are overweight or obese?


Breast milk contains approximately how many kcalories per quart?


Children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if:

parents eat breakfast with them

In adults the most common type of food allergy is:


Absence of breakfast for children is associated with:

decreased performance in school and decreased attention span

Iron-deficiency anemia in the latter part of infancy is associated with:

a diet containing few solid foods

Infants who are born prematurely will catch up in growth by:

2 to 3 years

The most sensitive indicator of long-term nutrient intake in a child is:


Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?


Essential fatty acids should make up ______ percent of the total fat intake of infants


For children 3 years of age and older, the most useful growth charts are:

BMI for age

The first solid foods usually introduced into an infant's milk diet are:
a. egg whites.

b. pureed meats.

c. pureed fruits.

d. iron-fortified cereals.


The fluid requirements of the infant are approximately __________ cups per day


According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the best age to introduce solidfoods into the infant's diet is:

4 to 6 months

Adolescents obtain ______ percent of their energy and nutrient intakes from snacks.

25 to 33

The greatest energy requirement per unit of body weight occurs during:


Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by ______ to ______ months


Brain growth is most rapid in infancy but stops by about what age?

18 months

Weight gain during the second through about the eighth year of life is about ______ pounds per year.


Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ______________ to develop.

nervous system

Feeding problems may develop during the preschool years partially because of:

decreased appetite associated with less-rapid growth

Approximately one third of children in developing nations are short and underweight for their age. The most frequent cause is:

weaning to high-carbohydrate, low-protein diets

Many formula products for infants contain:
a. lactose, heat-treated cows' milk protein, and vegetable oils.

b. soy protein, glucose, and vegetable oils.

c. fructose and heat-treated cow's milk protein.

d. galactose and vegetable oils.


Approximately what percentage of obese children become obese adults?


The adolescent growth spurt:

begins earlier in girls than boys

Human milk provides _______ percent of kcalories from protein.


If a child is to follow a totally vegetarian diet, greater attention should be given to which of the following nutrients?

Protein and vitamin B-12

Human milk provides ______ percent of kcalories from fat.


According to present day growth charts, an infant will double his or her birth weight at about ______ months of age.


Daily protein needs during infancy vary from ______ to ______ grams per day.


In children under 3 years of age the most common type of food allergy is:


Today most females reach their full height:

within 5 years after menarche

High-fiber diets are:
a. recommended for infants after 4 months of age.

b. recommended for infants after 6 months of age.

c. not recommended for infants.

d. recommended for breastfed infants only.


The new WHO growth standards stress that _______________ is the biological
norm for infant nutrition.


The food needs of preschool children are relatively great and it may be important to:

serve snacks daily in addition to meals

Obesity is a growing problem among teenagers, and about ______ percent of obese teenagers have the metabolic syndrome (Syndrome X).


Nutrition experts have created a version of MyPyramid for children aged:


Preschool children should be encouraged to try new foods. If a child is reluctant to do so, it is best to:

ask that he or she at least taste it

All of the following are true about "nursing bottle syndrome" except:

a. it causes tooth decay in bottle-fed infants.

b. it is associated with an infant keeping a bottle in his or her mouth while sleeping.

c. it results from the teeth being bathed in carbohydrate-rich fluid.

d. it is associated with not brushing the infant's gums at least 3 times per week.


All of the following should be omitted from an infant's diet except:
A. iron.
B. low-fat milk.
C. hot dogs.
D. corn syrup.


Which of the following statements is true?
a. There is strong evidence that infant obesity will result in adulthood obesity.

b. Obese infants become obese preschool children.

c. Most overweight infants become normal weight preschoolers.

d. Kcalories should be restricted for obese infants to levels less than those for normal weight infants.


All of the following are recommended to help preschoolers eat vegetables except:

promise dessert when vegetables are eaten

Mildred is worried about her infant becoming obese in adulthood. Which of the following would not be accurate information if you were attempting to counsel her?
a. Fat cells can increase in number during infancy and adulthood.

b. If she limits kcalories during infancy, the growth of other organ systems may be retarded.

c. Most obese infants become normal weight preschoolers.

d. Her infant should eat 20 percent of his or her kcalories as fat to prevent obesity.


All of the following are characteristic of food allergies except:

once they develop, they are always permanent

Which of the following in not a common food allergen?
a. Fruits

b. Corn

c. Nuts

d. Seafood


Which of the following is true about teens and vegetable consumption?

Potato chips and French fries make up more than one-third of the vegetable intake of teens

Which foods would you suggest adding to the diet of a preschool child who needs increased iron intake?

Lean meats

Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that:

79 of 100 girls her age are taller than she is

Which of the following minerals may be low in the diets of adolescent girls?

Iron and calcium

At age 4 to 6 months an infant can do all the following except:

handle finger foods

All of the following are true about readiness to add solid foods to an infant's diet except:

a. the infant has head and neck control.

b. the infant is consuming more than 32 ounces of formula or breast-feeding more than 8-10 times per day.

c. the infant is able to put food in its mouth.

d. the infant is at least 13 pounds.


Among the older population, the fastest growing age group is:

85 and older

Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism?


Which of the following is true about thirst among the elderly?

Elderly individuals can easily become dehydrated and this can cause confusion

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