The Han Dynasty
Terms in this set (58)
What year did the Qin Dynasty take over the warring states?
What year did the Han Dynasty take over China or the "Middle Kingdom"?
Briefly discuss two ways that the Han Empire is more civilized than the Qin Empire
1.) High degree of sophistication and literacy
2.) Common language based on Confucianism
3.) Common ancestor worship, family framework, religious practices
What are the dates of the Han Empire?
206 BCE-220 CE
How many crossbowmen were available to fight?
50,000, who fought with bronze and iron weapons
How did the Han gain support from the peasants?
The Han deduced land taxes from Qin times
List the "two phases" of the Han Dynasty. Give the dates, the main leader, and the main development of one of them.
1.) Western (former) Han Dynasty: 206 BCE-9 CE, Emperor Wu, Economic Expansion
2.) Eastern (later) Han Dynasty: 25-220 CE, Liu Xu, reconsolidated the empire
What two forces combined to impose order on the Chinese population?
The Imperial family and the new elite (scholar-gentry class) combined to impose order on Chinese population
With whom did the first emperors compromise to overthrow the Qin?
They compromised with aristocratic groups
Originally, how much land in the Han Empire was administered by the emperor's officials?
Originally 1/2 of the land, then 2/3 of the land was administered directly by the emperor's officials
At first, how did the Han Empire keep the Qin nobility on its side?
Kin of the imperial Qin family were made nobles and given land
What is civil bureaucracy and who headed it?
A civil bureaucracy was a group of government officials that administered affairs with citizens and in the government. A "grand counselor" chosen by the emperor was the head of this group
Define an autocratic monarchy
An autocratic monarchy was an emperor, his family, and the court
Discuss two ways that the Han Empire "tightened control" over regional administration between 177 and 155 BCE
The Han Empire removed princes from power, crushed rebellions, and they took over areas controlled by regional lords
Give an overview of the Han Empire in 106 BCE (provinces and commanderies)
The Han Empire consisted of 13 provinces under imperial inspectors who oversaw between 4 and 10 commanderies
Who ruled each commandery, and what were their two primary responsibilities?
A civilian official and a commandant administered each commandery. They were responsible for political stability and collection of taxes
By the end of the second century CE, how many people went to the Imperial University, and what did they study?
There were 300,000 students that had gone to the Imperial University, that studied, classics, engineering, and science
How were students admitted to the university, and from what were they exempted?
Students were admitted by recommendations. Their enrollment made them exempt from "corvee" labor, military service, and poll tax
Briefly discuss the relationship between the University and Confucianism
Mastering Confucian teachings increasingly became a focus of students, which helped to keep confucianism central to the imperial state
Briefly discuss what "remarkable partnership" the University established
Rulers created a remarkable partnership between the imperial government and China's educated and economic elite
What did Jia Yi state?
Jia Yi: "the state, the ruler, and the officials all depend on the people for their mandate." This meant that responsibilities therefore included civilizing the people in addition to supporting the elite
What power did the commoners not have over their ruler? What power did they have over their ruler? How is this tied to Confucianism?
They were not allowed to choose their ruler.They were allowed to turn away from an unjust ruler. The people agreed that the emperor should follow his responsibilities.
What became the official doctrine of the Han Empire in 50 BCE?
Confucian ideals of honoring tradition, respecting lessons of history, emphasizing emperor's responsibility to heaven
What are the two arms of the Han Empire government, and how do they balance each other?
The emperor and his officials: The officials could "check" the emperor's autocratic strength
What was the "genius of the Han"? Give two examples
The ability to win support of diverse social groups:
1.) Encouraged some peasants became local leaders
2.) Merchants permitted to expand into cities
State two ways in which Wu funded his military campaigns
1.) Controlled profit of salt and iron
2.) Minted copper coins and exacted stiff penalties for counterfeiting
List two ways in which Han city layout reflected political function
1.) Palaces and fort forbidden to commoners
2.) Markets placed in the south, served as the only public areas
Describe a wealthy person's house in the Han Empire
Wealthy family homes included several stories. They put embroidered cushions, wool rugs, mats on floors, Screens in rooms provided privacy
Briefly describe the difference between elite women and "common" women in the Han Empire.
Elite women were literate, earned respect for their talents. Common women worked in the fields or joined entertainment groups
Which classes wore silk, and what fashion apparel separated the elite from the others?
All classes wore silk because it was abundant. Elite women wore furs in the winter
On what grounds were the elite condemned for their indecorous ways?
For not eating or drinking properly (indecorously)
List three sources of entertainment for the Han
They received entertainment from performing animals, orchestras, gambling
What class was at the base of the Han economy? Briefly explain
Free peasants composed the base of the Han economy because they engaged in productive labor (producing farming goods, etc)
What did the Han government think of the merchant class and why?
The Han government thought the merchant class was unhelpful because they did not engage in productive labor, which the government encouraged them to do
What percentage of the population did slaves and convicts constitute in the Han Empire?
They made up 1% of the population
Who emerged as the Han Empire's most "formidable" social group from 100-200 CE?
Scholar officials emerged as Han Empire's most "formidable" social group, later emerging as the dominant aristocratic clans in post-Han China
Briefly discuss the relationship between unpredictable natural events and a Han ruler's authority.
Unpredictable natural events (earthquakes, famines, etc) indicated an emperor's lack of virtue
How many troops stood guard in the Han capital?
How many troops made up the Han Empire's standing army?
Over 1,000,000 people made up the Han's standing army
After 111 BCE, just how far did the Han Empire expand?
Han control extended from Southeastern Asia to northern Vietnam
Why did the Han Empire's infantry struggle to move north and south?
They struggled to the north because of mountains and terrain, and they struggled to the south because of malaria and other diseases
From what direction did the most serious military threat come for the Han Empire? Why?
Most serious military threat came from the north, because the Xiongnu lived there
Give three examples of how the Han used trade to forge symbiotic relationships with their enemies.
1.) They brought silk cloth, thread, mirrors to Xiongnu
2.) They brought furs, horses, cattle to China's farming communities
3.) They took Chinese textiles west along the Silk Road
Who are the Yuezhi? How did the Han use them to help defeat the Xiongnu?
The Yuezhi were a tribe that lived near the Xiongnu, and the Han used them to help defeat the Xiongnu by becoming allies with them and invading their land
Briefly discuss what military steps occurred in the Han Empire between 123 and 119 BCE and how it helped them to secure land to the north.
123-119 BCE: Han forces expanded well into northern Mongolian Steppe. This split the Xiongnu in half, and the northern tribes went west where they would eventually threaten the eastern flank of the Roman Empire, thus assuring the north was theirs to keep
What is the Pax Sinica? When did it occur? List two ways that life improved.
The Pax Sinica were the most peaceful days of the entire empire (149-87 BCE). Life flourished because: Long-distance trade flourished, population grew, and cities increased in size
What is the Jade Gate? Roughly where was it located? What passed through it?
The Jade Gate was the westernmost gate of the defensive wall built between the Tianshan Mountains and the Gobi Desert. Jade went in through the entrance, and paper, compasses,gunpowder came out
How long did the Silk Road flourish?
The silk road flourished into the second century CE
Give three examples of the state of the Han economy by the end of the first century CE.
1.) Standard of living decreased, natural disasters led to crop fail
2.) Peasants could not pay taxes with decreased harvests, so went in debt
3.) Peasants forced to sell their land, so became slaves in some cases
Give four examples of measures that Wang Mang took in an attempt to begin his own dynasty between 9 and 23 CE. Did it work?
1.) Attempted reform to help the poor
2.) Devalued money so that peasants would have more
3.) Placed limits on amount of land a family could own
4.) Prohibited purchase and sale of land
They did not ultimately work
List two ways in which Wang Mang was "unlucky."
1.) Dikes of Yellow River broke, and it ran south into the Yellow Sea instead of north onto the Central Plain
2.) Population in China dropped from 58 mill. in 2 CE to 49 mil in 140 CE
Who were the Red Eyebrows, and what did they do?
They were Taoists peasants that overthrew Mang in 23 CE
How did the Later Han Dynasty restore order? Give three results of this.
The Later Han Dynasty restored order by taking a hands-off economic policy that enabled landowners and merchants to accumulate great wealth. This caused international trade to continue growing along the Silk Road, land elites to become very wealthy, and free peasants to pay most of the taxes
Briefly explain what happened to the peasants in the Later Han Dynasty.
They had to pay all the taxes and do all the manual labor
What happened in 184 CE?
There was a full-scale rebellion between land owners and peasants
Who were the Yellow Turbans? What was their "religion"? What did they do?
They were a Taoist rebel group that demanded more fair treatment and equal distribution of farm lands
List the three states that replaced the Han Empire in 180 CE.
1.) Wei (northwest)
2.) Shu (southwest)
3.) Wu (south)
What is the dynasty after the Han Dynasty? What year did it begin?
The Tang Dynasty followed the Han Dynasty in 618 CE