57 terms

MUS 6 Quiz 2

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Harmony
Multiple pitches present simultaneously
Chord
Two or more simultaneously pitches
Polyphony
when two or more distinct melodies are combined.
Polyrhythm
simultaneous occurrence of several rhythms with what we can perceive as a shifting downbeat
Call-and-response
one singer or a group or instrumentalist sings or plays a musical phrase (call), and other singer or group or instrumentalists appears to answer, or respond with another musical phrase. Although it is found in music of many cultural groups, call and response is especially strong in African and African American music.
Timbre
the color and quality of a tone produced by an instrument or the voice.
Ostinato
rhythmic or melodic repeating pattern that is usually played "underneath," "against," or as backdrop for the main melody.
Ewe
Ethnic group that performs agbekor.
Agbekor
War dance of the Ewe people; the name means clear life.
Gankogui
a bell, or gong instrument played with a wooden stick. (Like cowbell)
Axatse
a West African rattle-like percussion instrument. The axatse is traditionally a dried gourd, wrapped in a beaded net. The axatse originated in Ghana, Togo and in the Volta Region by the Ewe people. Axatse usually has a hole on the bottom of the gourd. These holes are made to remove the seeds and the water from the gourd. This action of removing seeds adds resonance to the gourd and stops the gourd from rotting. The Axatse is traditionally percussed between the hands and upper leg.
Mande Empire
1200s-1600 influenced from Sudanic Africa, Muslim North Africa, Arab traders, Europeans; centralized, hierarchical society with distinct social classes; Muslim leaders, localized religious practices
Sunjata Keita
story of hunter-warrior-prince that rose to power by uniting small kingdoms to create the Mande Empire in 12th century.
Jali
heriditary musician/historians of the Mande people
Balafón
18-23 key xylophone with wooden bars and gourd resonators; thousands of years old, dates as a court instrument in 1300s; often played in pairs, one playing an ostinato
Kora
21-25 string "spiked bridge harp" or "harp-lute"; 7 note scale, alternating right side to left side; popularized in 19th-20th century; concepts of "down" and "up"
Konkon
rhythmic part played by knocking on resonator
Djembe
goblet shaped wooden drum, popular throughout West Africa; most popular African drum in the West
Kumbengo
instrumental ostinato
Birimintingo
virtuosic instrumental solo on the kora
Salif Keita
lead singer for "The Rail Band" in late 1960's, which fused jali musical techniques with modern instruments
Bassekou Kouyate
contemporary ngoni player from Mali; a modern griot; wrote "Sinaly" and protests about Islamic fundamentalist takeover of north Mali in 2012 and recites history for religious tolerance
Shona
People who live in the high plateau country between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, among the sixty million Bantu speaking people who predominate in central and southern Africa.
Mbira dzavadzimu
22 thick keys in 3 ranks used for worship of ancestral spirits; buzzing aesthetic; usually played with hosho rattle accompaniment
Deze
gourd resonator found in mbira
Hosho
Zimbabwean musical instruments consisting of a pair of maranka (mapudzi) gourds, known as with seeds. They typically contain hota(Canna indica) seeds inside them. The hosho are used to accompany Shona music, especially mbira music. They make a rattling sound that western ears may be unaccustomed to hearing. However, this accompaniment is essential when playing mbira and/or marimba music. So essential, in fact, that extra vibrating elements such as mirlitons (buzzing membranes made from spider webs) are attached to the resonating tubes of marimbas and machachara (miniature Hosho made from seashells or bottle caps) are attached to the mbira and its deze. Mbiras and marimbas from Africa; and even other instruments, such as drums will have some kind of rattles associated with their use.
Kushaura
means "to start" plays principal melody and higher parts; a mbira music feature
Kutsinhira
means "to follow"; echoes melody or plays harmonic patterns; a mbira music feature
Huro
yodeling found in mbira music
Mahon'era
bass register singing found in "Nyamoropa" and mbira
Chimurenga
means "struggle"; revolutionary popular music; influence of other African popular music as well as reggae; contains the use of mbira melodies, yodeling techniques; use of Shona language, and metaphors to avoid censorship
Thomas Mapfumo
the lion of Zimbabwe most famous exponent of Chimurenga
Hybridity
referencing fusion or mixture something created from 2 or more elements but distinct from each
Mestizaje
the process of social and cultural blending in Latin America.
Santeria
Afro-Cuban syncretic religion with Yoruba (Lucumi) beliefs and Catholicism; includes the beliefs of orichas/deities; consists of spirit possession through "mounting" a practicioner
Oricha
saints used in Santeria
Bata
consecrated (blessed) drums
Iyá
type of bata drum used in Santeria; it is the "mother" lead drum
Rumba
secular Afro-Cuban and dance with instruments that include congo drums, cajon, palitos, and clave
Yambú
a type of rumba style that is the oldest, slowest, and danced in couples
Guaguancó
a style of Rumba; it is faster, and includes men and women "pursuit"
Congas
three barrel shaped hand drums
Canto-montuno
long song sections
Son cubano
a style of music that originated in Cuba and gained worldwide popularity in the 1930s. Son combines the structure and elements of Spanish canción and the Spanish guitar with African rhythms and percussion instruments of Bantu origin. The Cuban son is one of the most influential and widespread forms of Latin American music: its derivatives and fusions, especially salsa, have spread across the world.
Santiago de Cuba
the second largest city of Cuba and capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island, some 540 miles (870 km) south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana.
Clave
are a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short (about 20-30 cm (7.9-11.8 in), thick dowels. Traditionally they were made of wood, typically rosewood, ebony or grenadilla. Nowadays they are also made of fibreglass or plastics due to the greater durability of these materials. When struck they -produce a bright clicking noise. Claves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound.
Bongos
an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument. The drums are of different size: the larger drum is called in Spanish the hembra (female) and the smaller the macho (male). They are membranophones, or instruments that create sound by a vibration of a stretched membrane.
Trés
guitar; a Cuban three-course, six-string chordophone
Septeto Nacional
a group credited with expanding the Son musical style before Arsenio Rodríguez. It added the trumpet to percussion, vocals, and strings.
Arsenio Rodriguez
played the tres (Cuban string instrument) in son-based music and tumbadora, or conga, in folkloric rumba. In the 1940s and 50s Rodríguez reorganized the son conjunto ('son group') and developed the son montuno, the basic template of modern-day salsa. He claimed to be the true creator of the mambo
Mambo
a musical form and dance style that developed originally in Cuba, with further significant developments by Cuban musicians in Mexico and the USA
Tito Puente
Puerto Rican that performed mambo music
Celia Cruz
cuban salsa singer
Salsa
type of music that emerged in 1960's and 70's in New York, mostly among Puerto Rican fans of Cuban music
Ruben Blades
salsero, actor, activist, politician; he was Fania's biggest star and he used salsa as vehicle for social commentary; he sings "Pedro Navaja"
Fania Records
a New York based record label. Fania is known for its promotion of what has become known as Salsa music.
Marc Anthony
Contemporary salsa romantic singer