How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

75 terms

Meteorology Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Convergence
The piling up of air above a region
Divergence
The spreading out of air above a region
Source
The area where an air mass develops, its ________ region, determines its characteristics
Continental Arctic Air Mass
An air mass that is exceptionally cold and dry
Maritime Tropical Air Mass
An air mass that is warm and humid
Maritime Polar Air Mass
An air mass that is cold and humid
Continental Tropical Air Mass
An air mass that is hot and dry
Anticyclone
A high pressure area
Cyclone
A low pressure area
Land Breeze
A _____ _______ is a local circulation that occurs at night as a result of land cooling off more rapidly than water at the beach
Sea Breeze
A _____ _______ is a local circulation (wind) that occurs during the day as a result of land heating up more rapidly than water at the beach
Mountain Breeze
A _________ ______ occurs at night as mountain slopes cool rapidly due to radiational cooling, and the cooled air flows downward into the valley
Valley Breeze
A ______ _______ occurs during the day as valley walls are heated by solar radiation and the heated air rises
Warm Front
A _____ _______ is a zone where relatively light (warmer) air advances moving over colder air
Cold Front
A ____ ______ is a zone of transition between a mass of cold air moving forward and under a mass of hot air.
Stationary Front
A ________ ______ is a zone of transition between air masses with different densities which are not moving (or are moving very little)
Front
A narrow zone of transition between air masses with contrasting (different) densities
Clockwise
Wind (air) moving around an area of high pressure moves in a __________ direction
Counter Clockwise
Wind (air) moving around an area of low pressure moves in a ___________ direction
Horse Latitudes
An area of calm winds located in the subtropical anticyclones
Hadley Cells
A huge convection current in which the air rises over the equator and sinks at the subtropical anticyclones
Gravity
The force which attracts objects to the earth's surface (pulls them downward)
Pressure Gradient
In response to the atmospheric ________ ________ air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
Hydrostatic Equilibrium
The result of a balance between gravity and vertical atmospheric pressure gradient
Coriolis Force
The ________ ______ occurs because of the rotation of the earth; it twists winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere
Wind
When isobars are closely spaced, the horizontal air pressure gradient is strong and strong _____ occurs
Westerlies
Prevailing __________ are the most common winds in the United States
Friction
_________ (with trees, buildings, ect.) causes horizontal winds blowing near the earth's surface to slow down
Squall Line
A band of severe thunderstorms that form ahead of a fast moving cold front
Windshift Effect
Airplane crashes sometimes result when _________ _______ occurs (the wind speed and/or direction change suddenly and unexpectedly)
Hadley Cell
Huge convection current in which air rises over the equator and sinks at the subtropic anticyclone
Horse Latitudes
An area of calm winds in the subtropical anticyclones where air is sinking so it's hot and dry
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Thunderstorms at the equator where winds come together and rise
Doldrums
At the ITCZ where weather is the same day after day as thunderstorms occur but horizontal winds are light because air rising
Jet Stream
Narrow ribbons of very strong winds at the top of the troposphere
Land Breeze
Local wind circulation that occurs at night as a result of land cooling off faster than the water
Sea Breeze
Daytime circulation caused by land heating up more rapidly than water
Mountain Breeze
Occurs at night, mountainsides cool rapidly and air sinks into the valley
Valley Breeze
Daytime/ mountainsides are heated by solar radiation and air rises
Westerlies
Prevailing winds in meat of the U.S. caused by the fact that winds blowing northward from 30 N of the equator, the winds are twisted to the right so they end up blowing west to east
Trade Winds
Air moving southward from 30 N of the equator is twisted to the right by the coreolis force so winds blow from the east
Continental Arctic Air Mass
Exceptionally cold and dry
Continental Tropical Air Mass
Exceptionally hot and dry, usually forms over a desert
Continental Polar Air Mass
Air mass that is cold and dry
Maritime Tropical Air Mass
Warm and humid (maritime = over water)
Maritime Polar Air Mass
Cold and Humid
Occlusion (occluded front)
Occurs when a fast moving cold front catches up with a warm front
Squall Line
Band of vigorous thunderstorms that forms ahead of a fast moving cold front
Source Region
Area where an air mass develops/ Ideally flat with uniform character and light winds
Cold Front
A zone of transition between an advancing mass of cold air and the warm air it replaces
Warm Front
A zone where light, warmer air replaces colder air by overrunning it
Stationary Front
Front that has no movement or very little movement (drizzle)
Air Mass
Large body of air with similar properties of temperature and humidity in any horizontal direction
Convergence
Coming together and piling up, occurs at a surface low
Divergence
Spreading out of air that occurs at a surface high
Air Mass Weather
Air mass that controls the weather in a region for a long period of time
Anticyclone
High pressure area
Cyclone
Low pressure area
Counter clockwise
Direction of air movement around an area of low pressure
Clockwise
Direction of air movement around area of high pressure
Hydrostatic Equilibrium
Result of balance between the upward vertical pressure gradient force and gravity
Pressure Gradient Force
Initiating force of wind blowing
Coriolis Force
Twists winds to the right in northern hemisphere: responsive force
Friction
Responsive force: acts against movement/ slows air down/ more friction near the surface
Station Pressure
Barometer reading at a particular reading and elevation
Sea Level Pressure
Station level reading is adjusted to what it would be at sea level
Rotation
The Coriolis force occurs due to the _________ of the earth
What three factors affect the Coriolis force, and how do they affect it?
1. Latitude: lowest at the equator, highest at the poles (Coriolis force)
2. Wind Speed: Faster wind, greater deflection to Coriolis force
3. Rotation of the earth
Higher, Lower
Air always moves from areas of ______ pressure to areas of _______ pressure
Clockwise, Outward
Air circulation around a surface high pressure is ____________ and ____________
Counter Clockwise, Inward
Air circulation around a surface low pressure area is __________________ and ____________
4 mb, Strong
Isobars are drawn at intervals of _____. Isobars close together indicate _______ winds
Bad/stormy
Low pressure (particularly dropping pressure) is associated with ___________ weather
1000, 30, 760
Standard air pressure is approximately _____ millibars, ___ inches of mercury, and ____ millimeters of mercury
10, 1
As we move upward from the surface, atmospheric pressure decreases by ___ mb per 100m or __ in for 1000 feet