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Solid viscera:

Liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries and uterus

Hollow viscera:

Stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, colon and bladder.

Umbilical Cord:

Contains 2 arteries and 1 vein

Bladder in infants/children:

Located higher in the abdomen than in adults.


Heartburn is common in pregnant women due to acid reflux.

Complications of pregnancy:

Gastric motility decreases
Constipation & hemorrhoids
Separation of rectus abdominus muscle


Difficulty in swallowing

Cranial Nerve I:

Olfactory Nerve
Sensory: sense of smell

Cranial Nerve 2:

Sensory: Visual acuity and visual fields by confrontation.

Cranial Nerve 3:

Motor: Up, down, and peripheral movement of eye

Cranial Nerve 4:

Trochlear: inferior lateral movement of eye

Cranial Nerve 5:

Sensory: sensation of face, mouth, nose, scalp, corneal reflex, mucus membranes
Motor: clenches teeth

Cranial Nerve 6:

Motor: lateral movement of the eye.

Cranial Nerve 7:

Motor: facial expression, movement of forehead and mouth
Sensory: taste-sweet, sour, salty, bitter

Cranial Nerve 8:

Auditory (Vestibulocochlear):
Sensory: Whisper voice test, Rinne & Weber tuning fork test

Cranial Nerve 9:

Motor: swallowing and vocal cord movement
Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, taste

Cranial Nerve 10:

Motor: swallowing and vocal cord movement
Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, taste

Cranial Nerve 11:

Spinal Accessory:
Motor: head movement & shoulder shrugging

Cranial Nerve 12:

Motor: Movement of tongue

Cerebral Cortex:

Divided into two hemispheres; left hemisphere is dominant in most people.

Four lobes of each hemisphere:

Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.

Frontal lobe:

Personality, behavior, emotions & intellectual function.

Parietal Lobe:

Lobe that controls Sensation

Occipital lobe:

Visual receptor center

Temporal lobe:

Primary auditory reception center

Wernicke's Area:

Area in temporal lobe associated with language comprehension.

Broca's Area:

Area in frontal lobe that mediates motor speech.

Basal Ganglia:

Controls automatic associated movements; arm swinging w/legs during walking.


Main relay station for NS; spinal cord and brain stem from synapses.


Controls temperature, heart rate, blood pressure control, sleep center, pituitary gland regulator & autonomic NS activity & emotional status.


Motor coordination of voluntary movements, equilibrium and muscle tone; doesn't initiate, but coordinates movement.


Midbrain, pons and medulla

Crossed representation:

Left cerebral cortex receives sensory info from and controls motor function of right side of body; vise versa.

Sensory Pathways:

Sensations to afferent fibers of peripheral nerve to posterior root to spinal cord; then one of two ways-spinothalamic tract or posterior columns.

Spinothalamic tract:

Sensory fibers that transmit pain, temperature, touch.

Posterior Columns:

Fibers conduct senations of position vibration and finely localized touch.

Corticospinal or pyramidal tract:

Corticospinal fibers mediate very skilled, discrete movements such as writing.

Extrapyramidal tracts:

Motor fibers maintain muscle tone & control body movements, such as walking.

Upper motor neurons:

Located withing CNS; convey impulses from motor areas of cerebral cortex to lower motor neurons in spinal cord. Ex of upper motor neuron disease-CVA, CP, MS.

Lower motor neurons:

Located mostly in Peripheral nervous system; Provides final direct contact w/muscles. Examples of LMN are cranial & spinal nerves.


A bundle of fibers outside the CNS

Peripheral Nervous System:

Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system & reflex arc.

Reflex Arc:

Four types:
Deep tendon reflexes-patellar or knee jerk
Superficial-corneal or abdominal reflex
Visceral-pupillary response to light
Pathologic (abnormal) -babinski / plantar reflex

Cranial nerves:

Enter & exit brain rather than spinal cord.

Spinal nerves:

Contain both sensory & motor function; enter & exit through spinal cord.

Autonomic Nervous System:

Mediates unconscious activity


Difficulity forming words.


Abnormal sensation, e.g., buring, tingling.


Inability to control range of motion of muscles.


Loss of motor function due to a lesion in the neurologic or muscular system, or loss of sensory innervation.


Partial or incomplete paralysis.


Subjection sensation proceeding a seizure.


Decrease or loss of smell.


uncoordinated or unsteady gait.

Romberg Test:

Stand w/feet together and arms at sides, close eyes. Positive sign is loss of balance.

Tandem walking:

Heel to toe walking test

Rapid Alternating Movements:

Pat knees w/both hands, turn hands over and pat knees w/back of hands.


Clumsy movement w/overshooting mark; alcohol intoxication; finger to nose test.


Decreased pain sensation.


Increased pain sensation.


Absent pain sensation.


Decreased touch sensation.


Increased touch sensation.


Absent touch sensation.


Ability to recognize objects by touch


Inability to identify objects by touch correctly


Ability to perceive passive movements of extremities.


Ability to read a number traced on skin.

Two Point discrimination:

Ability to distinguish the separation of two stimultaneous pin points on skin.


Simultaneously touch both sides of body at same point w/both sensations felt

Point location:

Touch skin then withdraw; ask person to id point touched.


Set of rapid, rhythmic contractions of same muscle.


Exaggerated reflex


Absence of reflex.

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