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74 terms

Health Assessment Exam 3-Chapters 21-23

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Solid viscera:
Liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries and uterus
Hollow viscera:
Stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, colon and bladder.
Umbilical Cord:
Contains 2 arteries and 1 vein
Bladder in infants/children:
Located higher in the abdomen than in adults.
Pyrosis:
Heartburn is common in pregnant women due to acid reflux.
Complications of pregnancy:
Gastric motility decreases
Constipation & hemorrhoids
Separation of rectus abdominus muscle
Dysphagia:
Difficulty in swallowing
Cranial Nerve I:
Olfactory Nerve
Sensory: sense of smell
Cranial Nerve 2:
Optic:
Sensory: Visual acuity and visual fields by confrontation.
Cranial Nerve 3:
Oculomotor:
Motor: Up, down, and peripheral movement of eye
Cranial Nerve 4:
Trochlear: inferior lateral movement of eye
Cranial Nerve 5:
Trigeminal:
Sensory: sensation of face, mouth, nose, scalp, corneal reflex, mucus membranes
Motor: clenches teeth
Cranial Nerve 6:
Abducens:
Motor: lateral movement of the eye.
Cranial Nerve 7:
Facial:
Motor: facial expression, movement of forehead and mouth
Sensory: taste-sweet, sour, salty, bitter
Cranial Nerve 8:
Auditory (Vestibulocochlear):
Sensory: Whisper voice test, Rinne & Weber tuning fork test
Cranial Nerve 9:
Glossopharyngeal
Motor: swallowing and vocal cord movement
Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, taste
Cranial Nerve 10:
Vagus
Motor: swallowing and vocal cord movement
Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, taste
Cranial Nerve 11:
Spinal Accessory:
Motor: head movement & shoulder shrugging
Cranial Nerve 12:
Hypoglossal
Motor: Movement of tongue
Cerebral Cortex:
Divided into two hemispheres; left hemisphere is dominant in most people.
Four lobes of each hemisphere:
Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.
Frontal lobe:
Personality, behavior, emotions & intellectual function.
Parietal Lobe:
Lobe that controls Sensation
Occipital lobe:
Visual receptor center
Temporal lobe:
Primary auditory reception center
Wernicke's Area:
Area in temporal lobe associated with language comprehension.
Broca's Area:
Area in frontal lobe that mediates motor speech.
Basal Ganglia:
Controls automatic associated movements; arm swinging w/legs during walking.
Thalamus:
Main relay station for NS; spinal cord and brain stem from synapses.
Hypothalamus:
Controls temperature, heart rate, blood pressure control, sleep center, pituitary gland regulator & autonomic NS activity & emotional status.
Cerebellum:
Motor coordination of voluntary movements, equilibrium and muscle tone; doesn't initiate, but coordinates movement.
Brainstem:
Midbrain, pons and medulla
Crossed representation:
Left cerebral cortex receives sensory info from and controls motor function of right side of body; vise versa.
Sensory Pathways:
Sensations to afferent fibers of peripheral nerve to posterior root to spinal cord; then one of two ways-spinothalamic tract or posterior columns.
Spinothalamic tract:
Sensory fibers that transmit pain, temperature, touch.
Posterior Columns:
Fibers conduct senations of position vibration and finely localized touch.
Corticospinal or pyramidal tract:
Corticospinal fibers mediate very skilled, discrete movements such as writing.
Extrapyramidal tracts:
Motor fibers maintain muscle tone & control body movements, such as walking.
Upper motor neurons:
Located withing CNS; convey impulses from motor areas of cerebral cortex to lower motor neurons in spinal cord. Ex of upper motor neuron disease-CVA, CP, MS.
Lower motor neurons:
Located mostly in Peripheral nervous system; Provides final direct contact w/muscles. Examples of LMN are cranial & spinal nerves.
Nerve:
A bundle of fibers outside the CNS
Peripheral Nervous System:
Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system & reflex arc.
Reflex Arc:
Four types:
Deep tendon reflexes-patellar or knee jerk
Superficial-corneal or abdominal reflex
Visceral-pupillary response to light
Pathologic (abnormal) -babinski / plantar reflex
Cranial nerves:
Enter & exit brain rather than spinal cord.
Spinal nerves:
Contain both sensory & motor function; enter & exit through spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous System:
Mediates unconscious activity
Dysarthria:
Difficulity forming words.
Paresthesia:
Abnormal sensation, e.g., buring, tingling.
Dysmetria:
Inability to control range of motion of muscles.
Paralysis:
Loss of motor function due to a lesion in the neurologic or muscular system, or loss of sensory innervation.
Paresis:
Partial or incomplete paralysis.
Aura:
Subjection sensation proceeding a seizure.
Anosmia:
Decrease or loss of smell.
Ataxia:
uncoordinated or unsteady gait.
Romberg Test:
Stand w/feet together and arms at sides, close eyes. Positive sign is loss of balance.
Tandem walking:
Heel to toe walking test
Rapid Alternating Movements:
Pat knees w/both hands, turn hands over and pat knees w/back of hands.
Dysmetria:
Clumsy movement w/overshooting mark; alcohol intoxication; finger to nose test.
Hypoalgesia:
Decreased pain sensation.
Hyperalgesia:
Increased pain sensation.
Analgesia:
Absent pain sensation.
Hypoesthesia:
Decreased touch sensation.
Hyperesthesia:
Increased touch sensation.
Anesthesia:
Absent touch sensation.
Stereognosis:
Ability to recognize objects by touch
Astereognosis:
Inability to identify objects by touch correctly
Kinesthesia:
Ability to perceive passive movements of extremities.
Graphesthesia:
Ability to read a number traced on skin.
Two Point discrimination:
Ability to distinguish the separation of two stimultaneous pin points on skin.
Extinction:
Simultaneously touch both sides of body at same point w/both sensations felt
Point location:
Touch skin then withdraw; ask person to id point touched.
Clonus:
Set of rapid, rhythmic contractions of same muscle.
Hyperreflexia:
Exaggerated reflex
Hyporeflexia:
Absence of reflex.