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A horizon

topsoil horizon that is generally gray to black, contains the remains of living things (humus)

B horizon

subsoil horizon that is generally red or brown


solid unweathered rock lying beneath surface deposits of soil

C horizon

beneath the B-horizon and above the bedrock


a natural, earthly material that retains its shape and hardens when fired

crop rotation

the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land


The transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention

Dust Bowl

term used for the central and southern great plains during the 1930s when the region suffered from drought and dust storms

E horizon

a soil layer from which minerals are leached as water percolates through the soil


Growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot.


removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards


a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials


farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year

Natural Resources

Raw materials supplied by nature

Conservation Service

A service that is helping to conserve the resources and farms

No Till Agriculture

This is where the land isn't plowed and herbicide is used to kill some weeds and some are left.

O horizon

Organic top layer, Surface plant and animal litter forms hummus.

parent material

material from which a soil is formed, determines composition and properties of the soil

R horizon



Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.


a loose material consisting of grains of rock or coral


a barrier of trees and shrubs that protect against the wind and reduces erosion


mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake

soil profile

a vertical section of soil from the ground surface to the parent rock


carving small, flat plots of land from hillsides


The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.

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