cookies and cakes (test 3)

shortened cakes
fat leavened with air, steam and chemical leaveners
unshortened cakes
leavened primarily with air, beaten egg whites and steam
hybrid, contains the fat, oil, leavening agents and air beaten into eggs
functions of sugar
tenderizes, dilutes flour proteins, adds moisture, browns crust, adds volume
functions of fat
tenderness, volume, moistness, flavor
using oil instead of butter
results in less volume and a coarse texture
function of milk
hydrates liquid, dissolves sugar, provides steam for leavening
type of cookie dough
dropped, bar, pressed, molded, refrigerator cookies