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shortened cakes

fat leavened with air, steam and chemical leaveners

unshortened cakes

leavened primarily with air, beaten egg whites and steam


hybrid, contains the fat, oil, leavening agents and air beaten into eggs

functions of sugar

tenderizes, dilutes flour proteins, adds moisture, browns crust, adds volume

functions of fat

tenderness, volume, moistness, flavor

using oil instead of butter

results in less volume and a coarse texture

function of milk

hydrates liquid, dissolves sugar, provides steam for leavening

type of cookie dough

dropped, bar, pressed, molded, refrigerator cookies

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