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APUSH Unit 6-Progressives
Terms in this set (51)
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law.
Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto.
Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
Australian ballot (secret ballot)
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates' names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
16th, 17th, 18th, 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax.
1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Charles Evans Hughes
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist Co. Fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Women's Christian Temperance Union, WCTU
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
Forest Reserve Act-1891
First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
Anthracite coal strike—1902
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.
Elkins Act—1903; rebates
This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates.
Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Nickname for Teddy Roosevelt; a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.
Northern Securities Co. case
The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meatpacking and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Panic of 1907
Caused by mistrust for and lowered confidence in bankers.
Election of 1908: candidates, issues
Taft, Republican, won over Bryan, Democrat, because of his support of Roosevelt.
Wisconsin, "laboratory of democracy"
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
Robert M. La Follette
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Formed to set safety standards and to enforce fair practices of business competition for the sake of the U.S. public.
Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Home rule for cities
The idea was that the people of a city should decide how the city is run.
Tom Johnson, Sam "Golden Rule" Jones, Brand Whitlock, Hazen Pingree
Mayors for social reform, they wanted a reform of values over more legislation.
City manager plan, commission plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
William Howard Taft
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
Department of Labor
1903 (Department of Commerce and Labor)- Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor; it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor
With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Uncle Joe Cannon, Old Guard
Speaker of the House, he could make or break legislation form 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics led to the adoption of resolutions in 1910 limiting the power of the Speaker.
Rule of reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case
1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
They split over ideology. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
Election of 1912: Wilson, TR, Taft, Debs—issues
Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), Taft, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe.
Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
SPA was a multi-tendency democratic-socialist political party in the United States, formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party which had split from the main organization in 1899.
Daniel DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies
DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies.
The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
"Big Bill" Haywood
Big Bill was a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America.
Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Underwood Simmons Tariff
October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
Federal Trade Commission, cease and desist orders
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Sec. of State William Jennings Bryan
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WWI.
Federal Highway Act—1916
Passed by Wilson, it provided federal money to build roads. It helped to provide competition to the railroads' monopoly on public transportation.
Wilson pushed passage of this act which mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
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