17 terms

QUIZ review Neurons and Neurotransmitters

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Acetylcholine
Enables muscle action, learning, and memory. DEFICIT: Alzheimer's
SURPLUS: muscles spasm
Dopamine
Influences movement, learning, attention and emotion.
SURPLUS: hallucinations, schizophrenia, drug addiction
DEFICIT: Parkinson's disease
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. DEFICIT: depression.
SURPLUS: Autism
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness and arousal
DEFICIT: depression
SURPLUS: Anxiety
GABA
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter, controls the sleep cycle.
DEFICIT: seizures, anxiety, and insomnia
SURPLUS: sleep and eating disorders
Glutamate
An excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory.
SURPLUS: migraines or seizures
Endorphins
natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
SURPLUS: Body may not give adequate warning about pain; artificial high
DEFICIT: Body experiences pain
Neuron
a nerve cell
Axon
passes messages along to other neurons or to muscles
Myelin sheath
protects the axon from the electrical current passing through the neuron
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that fit into to receptor sites and move messages from one neuron to another
Synaptic cleft / gap
tiny space between the axon terminal and dendrites where neurotransmission takes place
The neuron that send the message is the PRE- synaptic neuron the one that receives is the POST-synaptic neuron
Axon ending/terminals
Ends of axons that contain vesicles with neurotransmitters
Dendrites
Branchlike parts of a neuron that receive messages (neurotransmitters)
Action potential
a neural impulse; a quick electrical charge that travels down an axon
Soma
the cell body of the neuron
Neurotransmission
Chemical signals between neurons, take chemical from one neuron, transmit it to another