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AP Human Geography Unit 4
Terms in this set (103)
the study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena, including their impact on other spatial components of society and culture
Examples of Political Geography
-Characteristics of political entities
-Problems in defining jurisdictions
-The significance of fragmentation of political power
How does Political Geography relate to Political Unrest?
-Explains physical + cultural factors that underline political unrest
How is 20th-century global conflict different than in the 21st?
20th- between states/countries
21st- indicated by individuals/groups (terrorism) (9/11, Boston Marathon)
What are states on an international level?
An independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory, having full control over its internal foreign affairs
Is a state a country?
What are some places that have been divisive for if they're a state or not?
Korea, Taiwan (China considered it part of China), the poles, Sealand
States with very small land areas (Sealand)
Examples of big and little states
Describe Ancient States
sovereign state that comprises a town + the surrounding countryside, built walls to define boundaries
What is Mesopotamia?
an ancient city-state
Describe Early European States
-Roman Empire collapses
-estates owned by competing kings, dukes, nobles
-neighboring estates unify under a king
-England, France, Spain
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
effort by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic and cultural principles on such territory
What are the reasons for Colonialism?
1. Promote Christianity (God)
2. Extract useful resources + to serve as captive markets for their products (Gold)
3. Establish relative power thru the # of their colonies (Glory)
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
Example of Imperialism
European colonization of Africa + Asia is considered imperialism
Why did Halford Mackinder develop the Heartland theory?
to justify European colonization during the 19th century
What does the core of Eurasia equal?
heartland (lots of resources)
The belief of Halford MacKinder that the interior of Eurasia provided a likely base for world conquest.
-whoever controls Eastern Europe, Central Asia + the seas would control
the belief of Nicholas Spykman that domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base for world conquest
-whoever controls the Rimland controls the world
Why was heartland poised to rule the world?
Its large landmass
note to self: ADD RIMALND AND HARTLAND
Who created the Organic Theory?
States are like organisms that need food to survive. Thus, they must take over other lands to become stronger
What political parties may have originated from the Organic Theory?
Nazis and Lebensraum
Different Types of Borders
Compact, Prorupt, Elongated, Fragmented, Perforated
Advantages and Disadvantages of Compact Borders
A: Easy Defense + Communication
D: Easy to Invade
Advantages and Disadvantages of Protruded/Prorupt Borders
A: Increases access to natural resources such as water
D: Difficult to control the elongated portion
Advantages and Disadvantages of Perforated Borders
A: Another country is dependent upon you
D: Another country is taking parts of "your" land
Ex: South Africa to Lesotho
Advantages and Disadvantages of Elongated Borders
A: More access to water
D: Difficult to communicate + defend
Ex: Chile, Vietnam
Advantages and Disadvantages of Fragmented Borders
A: Access to different areas, more opportunity to discuss things, more countries to "deal with" you
D: Difficult to communicate + defend
A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
Examples of Exclaves
Alaska, W. Berlin (W. Germany), Kalingrad
A piece of territory completely surrounded by another territory of which it is not a part
Examples of Enclaves
Vatican City, San Marino, Lesotho
Describe Landlocked Countries
-At the merry of neighbors
-Need communication linkages (highways, airports, rivers, etc.)
Examples of Landlocked Countries
-Ex: Switzerland or Bolivia
What do landlocked countries do to lessen isolation?
Form alliances w/ other countries
a tangible geographic area that's uninhabited by ppl. seeking to live outside of organized society
-provide area of separation
Why are frontiers becoming attractive?
becoming more attractive to states for agriculture and mining
places most power in the hands of central gov. officials
Describe Unitary Systems
-Few internal cultural differences
-Strong sense of national unity
Where are unitary systems common?
in European countries
allocates strong power to units of local government within the country
Where's federalism often found? (give examples)
-Often in Multinational states
Ex. Unites States, Russia, Canada, Brazil, India
a boundary line established before the area in question is well populated
Ex: US-Canadian 1846
a boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled
consequent (ethnographic) boundary
a boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion, language, linguistics, ethnic, or economic
one forced on existing cultural landscapes
a boundary that no longer functions but is marked by some landscape features
An example of a positional boundary dispute
An example of a resource boundary dispute
Iraq invasion of Kuwait
An example of a functional boundary dispute
Describe Physical and Cultural aspects of Landlocked boundaries
physical: Desert, mountains, water
Cultural: Geometric (38th Parallel), Religious
example of irredentism
Pakistan and India fighting over Kashmir
each state is allotted a number of votes in a Presidential election based on their population
Louisiana has 6, Michigan has 16, California has 55
What besides the Electoral College is based on population?
Representation in the House of Representatives
Equation for Electoral College
# of representatives in the House + 2 Senators = # of Electoral votes your state has
Why do they create legislative districts?
To determine the districts that will be represented by a single representative
Why are districts redrawn every 10 years?
due to movement of the population and growth
What does redrawing district borders possibly lead to?
manipulating districts to empower or discriminate against groups of people
spreads opposition supporters across many districts but in the minority
concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts
links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries
Why did Louisiana lose a district in 2011?
-Relocation of people due to Hurricane Katrina
-LA had very little population growth from 2000-2010
Why was district 2 (New Orleans) extended into Baton Rouge, instead of another region?
To keep the district voting the same way as it had previously by:
-Maintaining the Black Majority
-Maintaining the Democrat Majority
What are the two ways states can cooperate with each other?
-Political and Military
-Economic, trade agreements, military alliances
How was the united nations created?
League of Nations failed
From 1945-1993 how many u.n. countries were added?
1945: Established by the Allies
1955: 16 countries
1960: 17 countries
1990-93: 26 countries
Who are the United nations peacekeepers?
Korea, Rwanda, Bosnia
Who were the two superpowers in the era of two superpowers?
-Warsaw Pact- Pro Communist
Give some examples of Regional Organizations
-OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe)
-OAS (Organization of American States)
-AU (African Union)
What's most important today in determining world powers?
What countries have strong economies?
China, Germany, Japan
Is a leading power a single state or group of states?
group, ex: European Union
tendency for a country to give up political power to a higher authority in order to accomplish a common objective
Example of supranationalism
Arab League and European Union
What are the effects of supranationalism on Europe?
-Free Trade between countries (No Tariffs)
-Common Policies (Environmental, Foreign)
-Larger Trading Market
-Common Currency (EURO)
The process by which regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
Examples of Devolution
-Czechoslovakia breaking into Czech Republic and Slovakia
-Yugoslavia breaks up into several countries
-London ceding power to Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales
What were the effects of devolution in Europe?
-New States are created
examples of subsequent boundaries
China and Vietnam/ Germany and Poland/ Northern Ireland and Ireland
examples of superimposed boundaries
North and South Korea, East and West Germany
examples of relic boundaries
Berlin Wall/ the Great Wall of China
Why did Iraq invade Kuwait?
To gain control of oil fields and reserves
-they said it had been taken away from them, but the real reason was oil
Why do India and Pakistan fight over Kashmir?
majority is Muslim, and land was given to India b/c of their help w/ Pakistan rebels
-they want access to their water for their high populations, Indus River
actions by groups operating outside gov. rather than to those of official gov. agencies
How often did terror attacks occur against Americans in the 90s?
The Effect of 9/11 on America
Americans recognized terrorism as a threat + begins "War on Terror"
Describe Osama Bin Laden
-Created and Funded Al Qadea
-Killed May 2, 2011
Why did Osama move to Afghanistan?
to oppose the soviet-installed gov.
Why did Osama declare war w/ the US in 1996?
b/c/o US support of Saudi Arabia and Israel
Dictator of Libya
Describe what happened between the USSR and Afghanistan
-USSR controlled Afg. in 1979
-US gave money/weapons to Afg rebels called "Mujahideen" fighting Russians
-USSR kicked out by 1992
Describe what happened between the Taliban and Afghanistan
1995- Taliban gains control
2001- US invaded Afg + unseated the Taliban
-Taliban still challenges US backed Afg.
Why did the US fight with Afghanistan?
Afg. is accused of state-sponsored terrorism by the US (9/11)
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group. They should be treated better than anyone else
the land around the edge of of a country or continent
How do you limit Russia's expansion?
by colonizing around it