A method of descriptively recording the behavior emitted by the learner, the response of others, and information about the environment.
(AKA self-stimming) The behavior itself is reinforcing and is not dependent on social interaction or receiving a tangible item.
A function of behavior in which the individual is reinforced by receiving attention from others.
Repeatedly asking for an item for a designated number of trials, and then moving to another item for the same number of trials.
A specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition.
Stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with unconditioned punishers. Form of positive punishment in which every time an undesired behavior occurs the actor loses a reinforcer.
(AKA secondary reinforcers) Neutral stimuli that have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers, or other conditioned reinforcers and through repeated pairing become reinforcers themselves. (i.e. stickers, sound, people)
What occurs before a behavior that then influences behavior. An environment or a stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
Training begins the link with the last behavior in the sequence. Trainer performs all but the last step until the learner masters the last step. Then trainer performs all but the lasts two steps until learner masters the last two steps and so on.
Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead
Follow same procedure as backward chaining but not every step in the task analysis is trained.
Data taken before an intervention takes place. Describes the existing level of performance.
An activity of living organisms.
A behavior that does not come naturally, but must be learned by the individual by pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response produced by the unconditioned stimulus itself.
Events that follow behavior and may influence it including increasing or decreasing it in the future.
Refers to and if_____, then_____ relationship between a behavior and a consequence.
Perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior (i.e. touch toes 20 times contingent on biting self).
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Providing reinforcement each time the behavior/response occurs.
Reinforcing one response class and withholding reinforcement from another response class.
Focus on increasing a desirable alternative behavior that directly or indirectly interferes with the performance of the undesired target behavior
you choose and alternative behavior to reinforce that, if performed, would be incompatible with the undesired target behavior (i.e. playing nicely vs. fighting; on task behavior vs. off task behavior; in seat vs. out of seat; deep breathing vs. yelling).
Providing a reinforcer after a particular time frame without the target behavior.
discrete trial training
Structured instructional methodology used to teach new behaviors. Designed to maximize a learner's potential by presenting information in a three-part teaching unit.
Procedure to teach between two targets.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
Used in DTT: Environmental cue or instruction that signals that reinforcement is available for a target behavior.
Data that is a calculation of the amount of time a behavior occurs.
A type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker.
Teaching procedures that are designed in such a way that the learning does not have to - and does not - make mistakes as she or he learns new information or procedures.
A function of behavior to escape or avoid having to do something.
Removal of reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior.
Prior to the behavior decreasing you will see a temporary increase in behavior.
Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule
The first correct response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed.
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or "fixed" number of responses.
Focused Support Strategies
Interventions to reduce or eliminate the need for reactive strategies and gain quicker control over behavior.
Training begins the link with the first behavior in the sequence.
The purpose or meaning of a behavior.
When the effort of reinforcement is extended beyond the conditions in which the training has taken place or to behaviors other than those included in training.
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Stimuli that have been paired with a variety of unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers. (i.e. praise, attention, money, tokens)
Involves creating an environment in which students; interests are easily fostered and nurtured, and one in which students can be most successfully motivated. Also known as Natural Environment Training
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement is delivered after only SOME of the desired responses occur.
The time interval between presentation of the consequence for one trial and the presentation of the SD for the next trial.
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others.
Short for demand, command or reprimand.
Repeatedly presenting the same SD (discriminative stimulus) and R (response) pair for several trials in a row.
momentary time sampling
Look up at the client immediately at pre-designated points and record whether the behavior occurred at that precise moment.
(AKA setting event) Contextual factors or conditions that influence behavior.
Multiple Stimuli Without Replacement
Chosen item is removed from the array, the order or replacement of the remaining items is rearranged, and the next trial begins with a reduced number of items in the array.
Multiple Stimuli With Replacement
Item chosen by the learner remains in the array and all other items that were not selected are replaced with new ones.
Natural Environment Training (NET)
Is loosely structured, and uses or contrives a learners motivation and activities and not an exclusively teacher-selected set of materials, as the basis for the lesson.
The termination or removal of a stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future
removall of an aversive event that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will continue in the future.
Behavior that is controlled or influenced by consequences. Behavior whose future frequency is determined by a history of consequences.
A type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
Effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem behavior.
Permanent Product Recording Procedures
A type of measurement used when the behavior you are assessing results in a lasting product or outcome.
Social reinforcers - usually attention, physical contact or verbal interaction - are removed for a brief period.
Presentation of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus immediately following behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
Pleasant or favorable event that follows a behavior - it is ADDED to the situation and increases the likelihood or probability that the behavior will occur in the future.
Make access to a high probability behavior contingent on performing a low probability behavior.
Strategies designed to produce changes over time.
Specific antecedent that directly facilitates performance of behavior.
The gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the SD.
Unpleasant events that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that a behavior will happen again in the future.
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior.
Used in calculating data. Frequency with the addition of a time component. Also a form of Event Recording.
Strategies designed to manage the behavior at the time it occurs (in the moment).
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and INCREASES the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Pleasant events that follow a behavior that make behavior more likely to occur in the future.
That the data taken is reliable and people who take the data agree on the occurrence of the behavior.
Something appropriate that the client can do instead of the inappropriate behavior, that will serve the same purpose.
Untaught or unconditioned responses. Reflex.
New stimuli can acquire the ability to elicit responses.
The source of reinforcement is blocked. A procedure in which the therapist physically intervenes as soon as the learning begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent the completion of the target behavior.
The amount of time after a specific stimulus has been given before the target behavior occurs.
Something that we THINK will might act as a reinforcer.
Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by reaching a satiation level.
(AKA Conditioned Reinforcement) Occurs when neutral stimuli have been paired with unconditioned reinforcers or other conditioned reinforcers repeatedly thus making the neutral stimuli become conditioned reinforcers.
One of the four functions of behavior in which an individual tries to gain sensory output.
A process by which one systematically and differentially reinforces successive approximations to a terminal behavior.
After a period of time the behavior may come back temporarily during extinction.
Individual behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another in its absence.
Exaggerate some physical dimension of the relevant stimulus to help the individual respond correctly.
short for contact
A function of behavior in which the individual wants to obtain a tangible item.
Involves breaking a complex skill into smaller, teachable units, the product of which is a series of sequentially ordered steps or tasks.
reading written words
Brief removal of all social positive reinforcement.
Reinforcement systems in which tokens are earned for a variety of behaviors and are used to purchase or exchange for a variety of backup reinforcers such as food, activities, trips, toys.
The physical form or shape of a behavior.
total task chaining
The chaining procedure which teaches each step of the chain during each training session.
Writing and spelling words that are spoken.
transfer of stimulus control
Process by which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the SD.
The extent to which an intervention plan is implemented as planned and prescribed.
A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without prior pairing with any other form of punishment.
(AKA primary reinforcers) Stimuli that do not require learning. (i.e. food, water, warmth, sleep, sexual stimulation)
A behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus.