96 terms

RBT Exam

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anecdotal data
A method of descriptively recording the behavior emitted by the learner, the
response of others, and information about the environment.
Automatic Reinforcement
(AKA self-stimming) The behavior itself is reinforcing and is not dependent
on social interaction or receiving a tangible item.
Attention Function
A function of behavior in which the individual is reinforced by receiving attention
from others.
Block Trials
Repeatedly asking for an item for a designated number of trials, and then moving to
another item for the same number of trials.
Chaining
A specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus
condition.
Conditioned Punisher
Stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with
unconditioned punishers. Form of positive punishment in which every time an undesired behavior
occurs the actor loses a reinforcer.
Conditioned Reinforcers
(AKA secondary reinforcers) Neutral stimuli that have been paired with
unconditioned reinforcers, or other conditioned reinforcers and through repeated pairing become
reinforcers themselves. (i.e. stickers, sound, people)
Antecedent
What occurs before a behavior that then influences behavior. An environment or a
stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
Backward Chaining
Training begins the link with the last behavior in the sequence.
Trainer performs all but the last step until the learner masters the last step. Then trainer performs all but
the lasts two steps until learner masters the last two steps and so on.
Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead
Follow same procedure as backward chaining but not every
step in the task analysis is trained.
Baseline Data
Data taken before an intervention takes place.
Describes the existing level of performance.
Behavior
An activity of living organisms.
Conditioned Response
A behavior that does not come naturally, but must be learned by the
individual by pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated association with an
unconditioned stimulus, elicits the response produced by the unconditioned stimulus itself.
Consequence
Events that follow behavior and may influence it including increasing or decreasing it
in the future.
Contingency
Refers to and if_____, then_____ relationship between a behavior and a
consequence.
Contingent Exercise
Perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem
behavior (i.e. touch toes 20 times contingent on biting self).
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Providing reinforcement each time the behavior/response
occurs.
Differential Reinforcement
Reinforcing one response class and withholding reinforcement from
another response class.
DRA
Focus on increasing a desirable
alternative behavior that directly or indirectly interferes with the performance of the undesired target
behavior
DRI
you choose and
alternative behavior to reinforce that, if performed, would be incompatible with the undesired target
behavior (i.e. playing nicely vs. fighting; on task behavior vs. off task behavior; in seat vs. out of seat;
deep breathing vs. yelling).
DRO
Providing a reinforcer after a particular time
frame without the target behavior.
discrete trial training
Structured instructional methodology used to teach new behaviors.
Designed to maximize a learner's potential by presenting information in a three-part teaching unit.
discrimination training
Procedure to teach between two targets.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
Used in DTT: Environmental cue or instruction that signals that
reinforcement is available for a target behavior.
duration data
Data that is a calculation of the amount of time a behavior occurs.
echoic
A type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another
speaker.
errorless learning
Teaching procedures that are designed in such a way that the learning does
not have to - and does not - make mistakes as she or he learns new information or procedures.
escape/avoidance function
A function of behavior to escape or avoid having to do something.
extinction
Removal of reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior.
extinction burst
Prior to the behavior decreasing you will see a temporary increase in behavior.
Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule
The first correct response is rewarded only after a
specified amount of time has elapsed.
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or
"fixed" number of responses.
Focused Support Strategies
Interventions to reduce or eliminate the need for reactive strategies
and gain quicker control over behavior.
forward chaining
Training begins the link with the first behavior in the sequence.
function
The purpose or meaning of a behavior.
generalization
When the effort of reinforcement is extended beyond the conditions in which the
training has taken place or to behaviors other than those included in training.
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Stimuli that have been paired with a variety of unconditioned
and conditioned reinforcers. (i.e. praise, attention, money, tokens)
incidental teaching
Involves creating an environment in which students; interests are easily fostered
and nurtured, and one in which students can be most successfully motivated. Also known as Natural
Environment Training
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
Reinforcement is delivered after only SOME of the desired
responses occur.
Inter-Trial Interval
The time interval between presentation of the consequence for one trial and the
presentation of the SD for the next trial.
Intraverbal
A type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal
behavior of others.
mand
Short for demand, command or reprimand.
mass trials
Repeatedly presenting the same SD (discriminative stimulus) and R (response) pair for
several trials in a row.
momentary time sampling
Look up at the client immediately at pre-designated points and record
whether the behavior occurred at that precise moment.
motivating operation
(AKA setting event) Contextual factors or conditions that influence behavior.
Multiple Stimuli Without Replacement
Chosen item is removed from the array, the order or
replacement of the remaining items is rearranged, and the next trial begins with a reduced number of
items in the array.
Multiple Stimuli With Replacement
Item chosen by the learner remains in the array and all other
items that were not selected are replaced with new ones.
Natural Environment Training (NET)
Is loosely structured, and uses or contrives a learners
motivation and activities and not an exclusively teacher-selected set of materials, as the basis for the
lesson.
Negative Punishment
The termination or removal of a stimulus immediately following behavior that
results in a decrease of that behavior in the future
Negative Reinforcement
removall of an aversive event that follows a behavior and
increases the likelihood that the behavior will continue in the future.
Operant Behavior
Behavior that is controlled or influenced by consequences. Behavior whose future
frequency is determined by a history of consequences.
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.
Overcorrection
Effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem behavior.
Permanent Product Recording Procedures
A type of measurement used when the behavior you are
assessing results in a lasting product or outcome.
Planned Ignoring
Social reinforcers - usually attention, physical contact or verbal interaction - are
removed for a brief period.
Positive Punishment
Presentation of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus immediately following
behavior that results in a decrease of that behavior in the future.
Positive Reinforcement
Pleasant or favorable event that follows a behavior - it is ADDED to the
situation and increases the likelihood or probability that the behavior will occur in the future.
Premack Principle
Make access to a high probability behavior contingent on performing a low
probability behavior.
Proactive Strategies
Strategies designed to produce changes over time.
prompt
Specific antecedent that directly facilitates performance of behavior.
prompt fading
The gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in
the presence of the SD.
punishers
Unpleasant events that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that a behavior
will happen again in the future.
punishment
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the
future frequency of that type of behavior.
rate
Used in calculating data. Frequency with the addition of a time component. Also a form of
Event Recording.
reactive strategies
Strategies designed to manage the behavior at the time it occurs (in the
moment).
reinforcement
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and INCREASES the
future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
reinforcers
Pleasant events that follow a behavior that make behavior more likely to occur in the
future.
reliability
That the data taken is reliable and people who take the data agree on the occurrence of
the behavior.
replacement skills
Something appropriate that the client can do instead of the inappropriate
behavior, that will serve the same purpose.
respondent behavior
Untaught or unconditioned responses. Reflex.
respondent conditioning
New stimuli can acquire the ability to elicit responses.
response blocking
The source of reinforcement is blocked. A procedure in which the therapist
physically intervenes as soon as the learning begins to emit a problem behavior to prevent the
completion of the target behavior.
response latency
The amount of time after a specific stimulus has been given before the target
behavior occurs.
rewards
Something that we THINK will might act as a reinforcer.
Satiation
Repeatedly presenting a stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness by
reaching a satiation level.
secondary reinforcement
(AKA Conditioned Reinforcement) Occurs when neutral stimuli have
been paired with unconditioned reinforcers or other conditioned reinforcers repeatedly thus making the
neutral stimuli become conditioned reinforcers.
sensory function
One of the four functions of behavior in which an individual tries to gain
sensory output.
shaping
A process by which one systematically and differentially reinforces successive
approximations to a terminal behavior.
spontaneous recovery
After a period of time the behavior may come back temporarily during
extinction.
stimulus control
Individual behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another in
its absence.
stimulus fading
Exaggerate some physical dimension of the relevant stimulus to help the individual
respond correctly.
tact
short for contact
tangible function
A function of behavior in which the individual wants to obtain a tangible item.
task analysis
Involves breaking a complex skill into smaller, teachable units, the product of which is
a series of sequentially ordered steps or tasks.
textual
reading written words
time-out
Brief removal of all social positive reinforcement.
token economies
Reinforcement systems in which tokens are earned for a variety of behaviors
and are used to purchase or exchange for a variety of backup reinforcers such as food, activities, trips,
toys.
topography
The physical form or shape of a behavior.
total task chaining
The chaining procedure which teaches each step of the chain during each
training session.
transcription
Writing and spelling words that are spoken.
transfer of stimulus control
Process by which prompts are removed once the target behavior is
occurring in the presence of the SD.
treatment fidelity
The extent to which an intervention plan is implemented as planned and
prescribed.
unconditioned punisher
A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any
behavior that precedes it without prior pairing with any other form of punishment.
unconditioned reinforcers
(AKA primary reinforcers) Stimuli that do not require learning. (i.e.
food, water, warmth, sleep, sexual stimulation)
unconditioned response
A behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus.