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Pharmacology I : Chapters 2 - 8
Terms in this set (87)
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Give as desired; pertains to fluids and activity, not to medication
Two times a day
Three times a day
Four times a day
Give the medication when the x-ray department or the operating room calls for the patient
Every 2 hours
Every 4 hours
Every 6 hours
Every 8 hours
Every 12 hours
Every night at bedtime
Immediately and only one dose
Adverse Drug Event (ADE)
A medication-related event that causes harm to a patient. Can be caused by improper label, prescription, dispensing, administration, among other factors.
The composition of a drug: liquid or solid; tablet, capsule, or suppository, etc.
The body location where the drug will be administered, e.g., mouth, nasogastric (nose to stomach), vein, muscle, subcutaneous tissue, rectum, or vagina.
Food and Drug Administration, the federal agency responsible for approving tested drugs for consumer use in the United States.
Official name used for a drug by all companies that produce it. For example, there are many brands and trade names for acetaminophen, the generic name for Tylenol. Acetaminophen is the official name. Tylenol is the brand name. Generic drugs are identical or bioequivalent to brand-name drugs is dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use.
Medications that have been identified by Institute fro Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) as those that can cause significant harm to patients when used in error. The icon is a visual reminder to help you become familiar with some of these medications.
Medication Administration Record, the official record of all medications ordered for and received by each patient during an inpatient visit. It is maintained by nurses. Each page may reflect on eor more hospital days.
No known allergies.
No known drug allergies.
Drug sold and purchased "over the counter" in drugstores, grocery stores, and health food stores without a prescription. Some were formerly required to be dispensed only by prescription and have been released from that requirement by the FDA.
Official permission from the U.S. Patent Trade Office to market a drug exclusively fro 20 years from the time of application. The patent period compensates the first company to market a drug fro the costs of drug research and development. After the patent period expires, other manufactures may apply to sell the generic form of the drug and must meet the same standards as the original company.
An unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or th risk thereof. Includes among other, severe adverse drug events (ADE).
Name assigned to a product by its manufacturer.
The system for telling time that begins with 0001 (1 minute after midnight) and ends with 2400 (midnight). Also known as the international clock or military time. Helps avoid confusion between a.m. and p.m.
Single serving size of a drug (e.g., 250 mg per tablet, 250 mg per 5 mL).
Unit-dose packaging of single servings functions as a safety net. It helps limit the amount of overdose and/or waste that might occur.
Manufacturers recommendation for the average dose strength (concentration) that usually achieves the desired therapeutic effect for the target population (e.g., "for adults with fever, 1 - 2 tablets every 4 - 6 hours, not to exceed 6 tablets in 24 hours"). Based on clinical trials, the usual dose is often specified by the patient's weight and occasionally by body surface area or age.
10 Patient Rights of Medication Administration
Assessment - vital signs
Drug - check order to MAR / correct indication
Route - per order or drug guide => pt circumstance
Documentation - document immediately after administering med
Refuse - pt has right to refuse med admin, but educate pt and advise doctor
Patient - 2 forms of ID ie. Name & DOB
Amount - order / drug guide / check safe dose
Time - order, hospital protocol
Education - therapeutic effect, side effect, name, action
Evaluation - what effect therapeutic or side effect
Medication covered in hard or soft gelatin. They are supplied in various sizes. The entire contents may be sprinkled in food such as applesauce or a liquid if the physician so specifies. Capsules should never be cut or divided into partial amounts.
Smooth, lightly coated, small oval tablet. The name is derived from capsule and tablet. It may or may not be scored.
Medication consisting of a combination of two or more drugs. Each ingredient may be available in one or more strengths. The order will specify the number of tablets. If there is more than one strength, the order will specify strength.
Dosage of medication is double strength. Does not mean long-acting or extended-release. However, a DS pill probably will be given less frequently than a "regular" counterpart.
Tablet containing potentially irritating substances and covered with a coating that delays absorption until it reaches the intestine. This protects the oral, esophageal, and gastric mucosa. Should not be crushed, cut, or chewed. Enteric should be written out to abvoid misunderstanding.
Capsule cover made of a soft gelatin for ease of swallowing.
Oral dissolving tablet (ODT)
Tablet that dissolves in the mouth and does not need to be taken with water.
Powders and Granules
Pulverized fragments of solid medication, to be measured and sprinkled in a liquid or a food such as applesauce or cereal.
Tablets scored with a dividing line that may be cut in half.
Supp : Suppository
Medication distributing in a glycerin-based vehicle for insertion into the rectum, vagina, or urethra and absorbed systemically.
Tab : Tablet
Medication combined with a powder compressed into small round and other shapes.
Medication contained within a semisolid petroleum or cream base.
Terms reflecting the use of various processing methods to extend or delay the release and absorption of the medication. They need to be differentiated from a regular form of the same medicine. These medications should not be chewed, crushed, or cut.
A regular medication may be ordered, for example, every 4 hours. An XR version may be given only every 12 or 24 hours. Some medications, such as Celexa, are marketed in both SR and XL forms.
Medication supplied in a water-based solution.
Liquid medication sweetened with alcohol, e.g., elixir terpin hydrate (ETH), a cough medicine.
A mixture of two liquids, such as oil and water, that normally do not mix.
Of liquid composition.
means drop(s), but do not use it, write out drop(s).
Compound medicine consisting of more than one liquid medication.
Water-based liquid medication.
Solid particles mixed in liquid that must be gently but thoroughly mixed immediately before administration; should not be shaken vigorously.
Ear and Eye (WRITE OUT)
Right, Left, or Both
To be dissolved in the cheek, not swallowed
Enteric (WRITE OUT)
Administered through a tube or port to the small intestine
Gastrostomy Tube; Given through a tube or port directly to the stomach
Metered Dose Inhaler
Nasogastric; given through a tube inserted in the nose to the stomach
Nothing by Mouth
Given by mouth
Write out "per rectum"; do not write "PR" or "R"
Sublingual, meaning "under the tongue"; to be dissolved, not swallowed
Topical, meaning "applied to the skin" (e.g., ointments and lotions)
Given per vagina
Injected into the epidural space, usually in the lumbar region
Hypodermic; injected under the skin; refers to subcutaneous and intramuscular routes
Intradermal; given under the skin in the layer just below epidermis (e.g., skin test)
Intramuscular, Intramuscularly; given into the muscle layer, usually the gluteal muscles, the thigh, or the deltoid
Given into the spinal canal
Intravenous, intravenously; given into vein
Intravenous piggyback; given into vein via a small container attached to an established intravenous line
Subcutaneous, subcutaneously; given beneath the skin, usually into the fat layer of abdomen, upper arm, or thigh
Parenteral nutrition; nutritional feedings per intravenous line into a large vein
Key pieces of information that are used in all medication calculations?
Ordered Dose; Drug concentration
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