APUSH Chapter 13 IDs
Terms in this set (32)
Idea that America was destined-by God and history-to expand throughout the continent of N America; reflected the pride that characterized American nationalism in the mid-19th century and the idealistic vision of social perfect
Young immigrant from MO who had established the 1st legal American settlement in TX in 1822; created centers of power in the region that competed w/ the Mexican gov
General Santa Anna
In mid-1830s became dictator of Mexico &imposed new, more conservative &autocratic regime on the nation &its territories. A new law increased the powers of the nat gov of Mex at expense of state govs. Led large army to TX &won Battle of the Alamo &others, having settlers flee from his army. Taken prisoner at Battle of San Jacinto
The Alamo and Battle of San Jacinto
Alamo-Mex forces destroyed American garrison at the Alamo mission in San Antonio after a famous defeense by a group of TX "patriots", including Davy Crockett
San Jacinto-4/23/1836: near present-day Houston: Gen Sam Houston defeated Mex army &captured Santa Anna, forced him to sign treaty &gained independence
1 of 1st acts pres of TX, Houston, was to send delegaton to DC w/ an offer to joing the Union. Jackson, Van Buren, and Harrison ignored the offer b/c afraid of slave states &more S votes in Congress. TX then wanted to compete w/US &take over the W; Brit &France signed trade treaties. Tyler asked TX to apply for statehood in 1844, admitting into statehood in 1845.
2,000miles long, major route W stretching from Independence across the Great Plains &thru the S Pass of the Rockies. After, they would either go N into Oregon or S to N CA coast. Journeys lasted 5-6 months.
James K. Polk
Strong supporter of annexation, Dem, TN HoR for 14yrs, was governor. Hoped to occupy Oregon and annex TX as soon as possible, appealing to N &S expansionists. Carried the 1844 election by 170 electoral votes to 105, although his popular majority was >40,000. Annexed TX, resolved Oregon solution @49th parallel
The Mexican War
5/13/1846 Congress declared war w/Mex b/c Mex troops crossed Rio Grande &attacked a unit of US soldiers. Whigs opposed b/c turned attention away from Pacific NW. US captured Monterrey in Sept 1846, but Mex escaped w/o pursuit. Summer 1846 Colonel Stephen W Kearny captured Santa Fe. W/John C Fremont &US namy, Kearny proceeded to CA &joined conflict known as Bear Flag Revolution. Captured CA in fall 1846. Then Polk seized Mex City; Mex willing to negotiate peace now
Polk ordered Taylor to cross Rio Grande, seize parts of NE Mex, beginning w/city of Monterrey, then march to Mex City. Captured Monterrey Sept 1846 but let MEx garrision evacuate w/o pursuit. Polk feared he lacked tactical skill for the planned advance against Mex City; also feared that if successful, would be powerful political rival
Treaty of Guadalup Hidalgo
Feb 2, 1848, Nicholas Trist reached agreement w/new Mex gov to end war. Mex agreed to cede CA &NM to the US &acknowledge the Rio Grande as boundary of TX. US promised to assume any inancial claims its new citizens had against Mex &pay Mex $15 mil.
Rep David Wilmot of PA (antislavery Dem) introduced amendment to the appropriation bill Polk proposed ($2 mil for peace w/Mex) prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mex. Called Wilmot Proviso; passed thru House but failed in Senate. Cont to be debated &voted on for yrs, but for now, Americans had = rights, including right to move "property"
Would allow the people of each territory (acting through thier legislature) to decide the status of slavery there; originally known as "squatter sovereignty." When Polk left office, issue on how to decided slavery in new territories still unresolved
Election of 1848
Dems and Whigs tried to avoid slavery question. Dems nominated Lewis Cass of Michigan (dull, aging party regular); Whigs nominated Gen Zachary Taylor of LA (Mex War hero but no political experience). Opponents of slavery not happy w/ these candidates &emerged new Free-Soil Party, nominating Van Buren. Taylor narrowly won
California Gold Rush
James Marshall found gold in foothills of Sierra Nevadas in Jan1848, late summer, that news reached E coast &rest of world.Immediately, 100sof1000s went to CA in frantic search for gold.Non-Indian pop increased 20fold in 4yrs. Atmosphere=crazed excitement &greed;migrants known as forty-niners which was 95%men. Attracted 1st Chinese migrants to W US. Created a serious labor shortage in CA, Indians replaced whites w/old jobs (slavery). Critical importance to growth, but tiny fraction ever found gold.Diverse pop, put more pressure on gov to resolve status of territories &slavery in them
Jan 29, 1850, proposed to Congress the Compromise of 1850. Believed that no compromise could last unless it settled all the issues in dispute between the sections. He took the several measure that had been proposed separately &combined them together. He appealed to shared national sentiments of nationalism
John C. Calhoun
He insisted that the N grant the S = rights in the territories, that it agree to observe the laws concerning fugitive slaves, that it cease attacking slavery, &amend the Constitution to creat dual presidents, 1 from N &1 from S, each w/ a veto. Offered what he considered a comphrehensive, permanent solution to the sectional problem that would save the Union.
Compromise of 1850
Clay proposed this Jan 29, 1850; provisions were the admission of CA as a free state; the formation of territorial govs in the rest of the lands acquired from Mex, w/o restrictions on slavery; the abolition of slave trade, bu not slavery itself in DC; &a new &more effective fugitive slave law. After 6 months, Congress defeated Clay proposal; Clay, Calhoun, and Webster all out of debate now. William Seward, Jeff Davis, &Stephen A Douglas fixed comp, &it was signed by Pres Fillmore
He was involved in the first phase of the Comp of 1850 debate. He delivered an eloquent address in the Senate, trying to rally northern moderates to support Clay's comp
Dem senator from Illinois, a westerner from a rapidly growing state &open spokesman for the economic needs of his section &esp for the construction of RRs. He broke up Clay's bill &introduced a series of separate measures to be voted on by one, reps of different sections could support those elements of the comp they liked &oppose the ones they don't. Had backroom deals linking comp to such nonideological matters as sal of gov bonds &construction of RRs
Emergence of this group signaled the inability of the existing parties to contain the political passions slavery was creating. Also an important part of a process that would elad to the collapse of the second party system in the 1850s.
Fugitive Slave Act
N opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act intensified quickly after 1850 when southerners began appearing in N states to pursue people they claimed were fugitives. Mobs formed in some N cities to prevent enforcement of the law &several n states also passed their own laws barring the deportation of fugitive slaves
Won election of 1852; attempted to maintain party harmony by avoiding divisive issues, particularly slavery. Hoped to dampen sectional controversy through his support of a movement in Dem Party known as "Young America"; been pusruing unsuccessful diplomatic attempts to buy Cuba from Spain which enraged antislavery N w/ trying to bring slave state in Union
Problem of communication b/w old &new states became more critical &broad support began to emerge for building a transcontinental RR. Problem where to place it; N favored Chicago, S supported St Louis, Memphis or NOLA (all in slave states). This had become part of the struggle b/w N &S
RR w/ S terminus had to pass thru some Mex territory so Jeff Davis sent James Gadsden in 1853, S RR builder, to Mex, where he persuaded Mex gov to accept $10 mil in exchange fro a strip of land that is part of modern-day AZ &NM: this accentuated sectional rivalry
Douglas organized a new territory, NE, for the RR, but to make the S approve his bill since its above MO comp line (free state). Inserted a provision that the status of slavery in territory would be determined by territorial legislature. Agreed to add. clause explicitly reapling the MO comp, also divide area into 2 territories (NE &KS); KS more likely to be slave state. Pierce supported bill, became law in May 1854
The people who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in both the Dem &Whig Party formed a new organization &called it the Repub Party in 1854; instantly a major force in US politics. In the elections that year, won enough seats in Congress to permit them to organize the House of Reps
Considered himself an instrument of God's will to destroy slavory; moved to KS to fight to make it a free state. He &6 followers 1 night murdered 5 proslavery settlers, leaving their bodies to discourage other supporters; known as Pottawatomie Massacre-led to more civil strife in KS. These events gave KS the name "Bleeding KS." 1859-attacked &seized control of US arsenal in Harper's Ferry,VA; believed could forment a slave rebellion in S, but didn't happen. Sentenced to death by VA court for treason
Slave Power Conspiracy
N believed that the S was engaged in a conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation &thus to destroy the opnnes of northern captialism &replace it w/the closed, aristocratic system of the S. Only solution was to fight the spread of slavery &extend nation's democratic ideals to all sections of country
Election of 1856
Dems wanted candidate who wasn't closely associated w/ explosive question of "Bleeding KS;" chose James Buchanan of PA who has been safely out of the recent controversies. Repubs (1st election) denounced KS-NE Act &expansion of lsavery but endorsed a Whiggish program of internal improvements, combining idealism of antislavery w/economic aspirations of the N; chose John C Fremont. Know-nothing chose Fillmore. Buchanan won narrow victory
Won election of 1856, oldest president at 65. Financial panic struck the nation follwed by years of a depression
Dred Scott Decision
Dred Sctott sued master's widow for freedom on grounds that his residence in free territory had liberated him from slavery, and widow's brother, John Sanford claimed ownership of him. When Scott appealed to fed courts, Sanford's attorneys claimed Scott had no standing to sue b/c not citizen but private property.Taney said not a citizen, blacks had no claim to citizenship; slaves=property &5th amend prohibited Congress from taking property w/o "due procress of law";MO Comp=always unconstitutional b/c Congress possessed no authority to pass a law depriving ppl of their slaves in territories
Lincoln wasn't a national figure like Douglas &tried to increase his visibility by engaging Douglas in a series of debates. They attracted enormous crowds &received wide attention; Lincoln's increasingly elopquent &passionate attacks on slaverymade him nationally prominent. Heart of debates=basic difference on slavery
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