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71 terms

Immune System

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
the advanced stage of HIV infection
Allergen
an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen; also known as hypersensitivity
Anaphylaxis
a severe response to a foreign substance such as a drug, food, insect venom, or chemical
Antibody (Ab)
a disease fighting protein caused by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
Antigen (Ag)
any substance such as a virus, bacterium, or toxin that the body regards as foreign
Antiviral
medication used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity
Aspergillosis
an infection caused by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus
Autoimmune disorder
disorder of the immune system in which the body attacks itself
Immunosuppressant
Medication that prevents or reduces the body's normal reactions to invasion by disease or by foreign tissues.
Immunosuppression
Treatment used to interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to antigen stimulation.
Immunotherapy
Treatment of disease either by enhancing or repressing the immune response.
Infectious mononucleosis
An infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (one of the herpes viruses) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes.
Ductal carcinoma in situ
breast cancer at its earliest stage (stage 0) before the cancer has broken through the wall of the duct.
Invasive lobular carcinoma
cancer that starts in the milk glands (lobules), breaks through the wall of the gland and invades the fatty tissue of the breast.
Inguinal lymph nodes
are located in the inguinal (groin) area of the lower abdomen.
Interferon
produced by the T cells and is a family of proteins released by cells when invaded by a virus. Also causes noninfected cells to form an antiviral protein that slows or stops viral multiplication.
Kaposi's sarcoma
form of sarcoma that is frequently associated with HIV and may affect the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes and internal organs
Lumpectomy
surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a margin of normal tissue.
Lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes: also known as swollen glands.
lymphadenopathy
any disease process usually involving enlargement of the lymph nodes.
lymphangiogram
a radiographic study of the lymphatic vessels and nodes with the use of a contrast medium to make these structures visible.
lymphangioma
a benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass.
lymphedema
an abnormal accumulation of fluid primarily in the legs and ankles that occurs when veins or lymph vessels do not drain properly
lymphocytes
small white blood cells that bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activities of the immune system.
ELISA
also referred to as enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay; it is a blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies
Herpes zoster
An acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow by underlying route of the inflamed nerve; also known as shingles
Hodgkin's disease
is distinguished by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. These are large cancerous lymphocytes that are identified by microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen taken from an enlarged lymph node
Human immunodeficiency virus
A blood borne pathogen that invades and then progressively impairs or kills cells of the immune system
Immunodeficiency disorder
A condition that occurs when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing
Immunoglobulin
A type of antibody produced naturally by the body; synthetic immunoglobulis are administered as a post exposure preventative measure against certain viruses such as rabies and some types of hepatitis
Immunologist
A specialist in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the immune system
Lymphokines
produced by the T-cells; direct the immune response by signaling between the cells of the immune system
Lymphoma
a general term applied to malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system.
Macrophage
a type of phagocycte that protects the body by ingesting invading cells and by interacting with other cells of the immune system.
Metastasis
the new cancer site that results from the spreading process
Metastasize
the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another.
Neuroblastoma
a sarcoma of nervous system origin.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Oncologist
a specialist in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer.
Oncology
the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer.
Opportunistic infection
an infection that attacks a person with a weakened immune system
Osteosarcoma
a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee.
Neoplasm
new tumor growth that can be benign or malignant
axillary lymph nodes
Drain the breast and upper arm.
bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria ex: tetanus & tuberculosis
bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
bactericide
any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
bacteriostatic
agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria
brachytherapy
therapy using radioactive sources that are placed inside the body
carcinoma
any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue
cervical lymph nodes
located in the neck; drain the head and neck
complement
one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response
cytomegalovirus
a herpes-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
cytotoxic drugs
used for chemotherapy, are destructive to cells, stops reproduction of cancer cells.
parasite
an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
pathogen
An organism that causes disease
phagocyte
a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
rabies
an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal.
retinoblastoma
is a malignant tumor of the retina that occurs predominantly in young children
rikettsia
small bacteria that live in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites that are transmitted to humans ex: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
rubella
German measles; a mild viral infection marked by a pink rash and fever in children
sarcoma
malignant tumor that arises from connective tissue
spirochetes
spiral shaped bacteria ex: lyme disease
splenomegaly
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
splenorrhagia
hemorrhage of the spleen
staphylococci
bacteria growing in bunches (like grapes) ex: pneumonia & skin infections
streptococci
bacteria that form a chain ex: pharyngitis
teletherapy
radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body
thymus
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
western blot test
to confirm a positive result of the ELISA test (HIV)This blood test that has more accurate results than the ELISA test.