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Place of union for two or more bones

Non-synovial joints:

Bones untifed by fibrous tissue or cartilage and are immovabe.

Synovial joints:

Freely movable joints


Avascular connective tissue w/slow cell turnover.


Fibrous bands running directly from one bone to another that strengthen joints.


An enclosed sac filled with viscous synovial fluid, located in areas of potential friction (shoulder, knee).


40-50 percent body weight; Contraction produces movement

Skeletal muscles:

Voluntary muscles under conscious control


Bundles of muscle fibers


A strong fibrous cord taht attaches muscle and bone.


Moving body part forward and parallel to ground

Temporomandibular Joint:

The articulation of the mandible and temporal bone


33 connecting bones stacked in vertical column

Breakdown of Vertebrae:

Cervical 7; thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacral 5; coccygeal 3 or 4

Vertebral landmarks:

Spinous processes of C7 & T1 at base of neck;
Inferior angle of scapula at T7 & T8;

Intrevertebral disks:

Elastic fibrocartilaginous plates that have a nucleus pulposus as shock absorbers

Glenohumeral Joint:

Articulation of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula; ball & socket joint.

Rotator cuff:

4 powerful muscles that enclose the glenohumeral joint, to support and stabilize it.

Acromion Process:

Landmark of the scapula on the very top of shoulder

Subacromial bursa:

Bursa in the shoulder by rotator cuff

Medial & lateral epicondyles:

Palpable landmarks of elbow on the humerus.

Olercranon process of Ulna:

Large area on the humerus between the medial & lateral epicondyles

Radiocarpal joint:



The articulation of three bones: the femur, tibia and patella

Supratellar pouch:

The knee's synovial membrane

Medial & lateral menisci:

Two wedge shaped cartilages that cushion the tibia and femur.

Tibiotalar Joint:

Ankle-the articulation of the tibia, fibula and talus; hinge joint

Ankle landmarks:

Medial and lateral malleolus


Loss of bone density


Growth plates


Partial dislocation of a joint

Phalens test:

Hold both hands back to back with flexing wrists at 90 degrees

Tinels Sign:

Direct percussion of median nerve at wrist

Bulge Sign:

Swelling at the suprapatellar pouch; move fluid from side to side

Ballottement of the Patella:

Compress suprapatellar pouch to move fluid into knee joint

McMurrays Test:

Patient supine, flex knee and rotate leg

LeSegues Test:

Raise uneffected leg to test for back and leg pain

Ortolani's Maneuver:

Checks for infant hip displacement

Allis Test:

Checks for infant hip displacement by comparing leg lenght

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding connective tissue


Non-inflammatory, localized progressive disorder of articular cartilages, subchondral bone and formation of new bone


Extra digits

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