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24 terms

Chemistry 521A - Chapter 23

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functional group
a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions
Substitution Reaction
a common type of organic reaction which involves the replacement of an atom or gropu of atoms bu another atom or group of atoms; Example - the reaction of chlorine with ethane to produce ethyl chloride and hydrogen chloride
aryl halides
a class of organic compounds in which one of more halogen atoms are joined to a carbon of an arene ring
alkyl halides
a halocarbon in which one or more halogen atoms are attached to the carbon atoms of an aliphatic chain
halocarbons
any member of a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine
primary alcohol
one R group attached to C-OH
secondary alcohol
two R groups attached to C-OH
tertiary alcohol
three R groups attaced to C-OH
-diol
IUPAC ending used for an alcohol with two OH substitutions
ether
compound in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups
Addition reaction
adding new functional groups at the double or triple bond of an alkene or alkyne; example the reaction of HBr with propene to form 1-bromopropane
hydration reaction
the addition of water to an alkene
fermentation
the production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria
alcohols
a class of organic compounds whose structures contain an -OH group
hydrogenation reaction
a reaction in which hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond to give an alkane; example the reaction of hydrogen with butene to form butane
hydroxyl group
the -OH functional group present in alcohols
aldehyde
an organic compound in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to at least one hydrogen; the general formula is RCHO
aliphatic hydrocarbon
any straight-chain or branched chain alkane, alkene, or alkyne
carboxylic acid
an organic acid containing a carboxyl gropu; the general formula is RCOOH
carbonyl group
a functional group having a carbon atom and an oxygen atom joined by a double bond; it is found in aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides
carboxyl group
a function gropu consisting of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group; it is found in carboylic acids
denatured alcohol
ethanol to which a poisonous substance has been added to make it toxic
monomer
a simple molecule that repeately combines to form a polymer
polymer
a very large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating small molecules, known as monomers