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functional group

a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions

Substitution Reaction

a common type of organic reaction which involves the replacement of an atom or gropu of atoms bu another atom or group of atoms; Example - the reaction of chlorine with ethane to produce ethyl chloride and hydrogen chloride

aryl halides

a class of organic compounds in which one of more halogen atoms are joined to a carbon of an arene ring

alkyl halides

a halocarbon in which one or more halogen atoms are attached to the carbon atoms of an aliphatic chain


any member of a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine

primary alcohol

one R group attached to C-OH

secondary alcohol

two R groups attached to C-OH

tertiary alcohol

three R groups attaced to C-OH


IUPAC ending used for an alcohol with two OH substitutions


compound in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups

Addition reaction

adding new functional groups at the double or triple bond of an alkene or alkyne; example the reaction of HBr with propene to form 1-bromopropane

hydration reaction

the addition of water to an alkene


the production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria


a class of organic compounds whose structures contain an -OH group

hydrogenation reaction

a reaction in which hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond to give an alkane; example the reaction of hydrogen with butene to form butane

hydroxyl group

the -OH functional group present in alcohols


an organic compound in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to at least one hydrogen; the general formula is RCHO

aliphatic hydrocarbon

any straight-chain or branched chain alkane, alkene, or alkyne

carboxylic acid

an organic acid containing a carboxyl gropu; the general formula is RCOOH

carbonyl group

a functional group having a carbon atom and an oxygen atom joined by a double bond; it is found in aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides

carboxyl group

a function gropu consisting of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group; it is found in carboylic acids

denatured alcohol

ethanol to which a poisonous substance has been added to make it toxic


a simple molecule that repeately combines to form a polymer


a very large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating small molecules, known as monomers

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