Genetics, DNA, and Mutations
An organism's genetic code, or allele combinations. Represented by letters
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Different forms of a gene
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait, ex. Gg
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait, ex. GG or gg
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
deoxyribonucleic acid, holds specific code for your body
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
Nitrogenous bases in DNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Adenine (A) pairs with
Cytosine (C) pairs with
building blocks of proteins
Chains of amino acids, allow the body to perform and function
the process of making a copy of DNA, final result is 2 identical daughter strands
rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information
Humans have ___ pairs of chromosomes
Humans have ___ chromosomes
a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene
a mutation in which one nitrogeneous base (nucleotide) is changed to another
a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence, cause s the "reading" of the genetic message to be shifted
a sequence of three nucleotides that code for an amino acid
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