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25 terms

Rocks and Minerals

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Lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
Rock
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
Rock Cycle
sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes (a process where one rock type changes into another).
Minerals
Inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth.
Sedimentary Rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Igneous rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
Intrusive Rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
Extrusive Rock
Igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface
Properties
characteristics used to describe a substance
Mohs Hardness Scale
a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals
Luster
the way a mineral reflects light from its surface
Streak
The color of the powder left when a mineral is rubbed against a hard rough surface
Weathering
The process by which natural forces break down rocks and minerals.
Erosion
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Sediment
Solid materials such as rock fragments, plant and animal remains, or minerals that are carried by water, wind, ice, gravity, or some other natural force and settle in a new location (bottom of a body of water or at the foot of hills and mountains)
Deposition
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
Magma
Molten rock beneath the planet's surface.
Lava
Molten rock that reaches a planet's surface through a volcano or other opening in the crust
Cleavage
physical property of some minerals that causes them to break along smooth, flat surfaces
Crustal Deformation
The bending, tilting, and breaking of the Earth's crust caused mainly by movement of the tectonic plates.
Destructive forces
Forces that wear away or break down land masses on the earth's surface (weathering and erosion)
Constructive forces
Forces that shape Earth's surface by building mountains and landmasses
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
cementation
The process by which dissolved minerals crystalize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.