25 terms

TM Psychology 1 - Unit 6 Exam - 2019

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learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
classical conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
unconditioned response (UR)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response.
conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
conditioned stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
acquisition
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
extinction
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when a unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant condition when a response is no longer reinforced.
spontaneous recovery
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
generalization
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit responses.
discrimination
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
positive reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer in any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
fixed-ratio schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
variable-ratio schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed-interval schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
punishment
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows .
cognitive map
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
extrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
observational learning
Learning by observing others.
modeling
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neurons
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation and empathy.
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