40 terms

TM Psychology 1 - Unit 7 Exam - 2019

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flashbulb memory
Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
encoding
Processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning.
storage
Retention of encoded information over time.
retrieval
Process of getting information out of memory storage.
sensory memory
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
short-term memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing.
long-term memory
Relatively permanent and unlimited storehouse of the memory system.
automatic processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency.
effortful processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
rehearsal
Conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
spacing effect
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
mnemonics
Memory aids; like vivid imagery.
peg word
Memory aid that involves linking words with numbers in a vivid imagery manner.
method of loci
Memory aid when one links something they need to remember with a place that they know very well.
iconic memory
Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli.
echoic memory
Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
retrograde amnesia
A loss of memory access to events that occurred, or information that was learned in the past.
anterograde amnesia
A loss of the ability to create new memories.
implicit (procedural) memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection.
explicit (declarative) memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare".
recall
Measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.
recognition
Measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.
proactive interference
Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference
Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
prototype
A standard or typical example.
algorithm
A precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem.
heuristic
A common sense rule (or set of rules) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem.
insight
A cognitive form of learning involving the mental restructuring of the elements in a problem to achieve an understanding or the problem and arrive at a solution.
mental set
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
functional fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
representative heuristic
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
availability heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common.
language
The mental faculty or power of vocal communication.
phoneme
Linguistics, one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language.
morpheme
Minimal meaningful language unit.
semantics
The study of language meaning.
syntax
The grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.
telegraphic speech
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words.
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