74 terms

5th grade Science (weather)

Science End of Grade Test
STUDY
PLAY
radiation
heat transfer of energy from the sun
convection
heat transfer through motion, happens with liquids and gases
air pressure
force exerted by air
atmosphere
the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth
winds
moving air created by differences in air pressure
barometer
tool to measure air pressure
thermometer
tool to measure temperature
greenhouse effect
natural process that keeps the Earth warm, involves trapping heat from the sun and transferring it through the atmosphere
anemometer
tool used to measure wind speed
equilibrium
to be balanced
precipitation
water that falls to Earth's surface as rain, snow, sleet, or hail
evaporation
the change of state from a liquid to a gas (through heating)
condensation
the process of changing from a gas to a liquid t(through cooling)
transpiration
release of water vapor from plant leaves (tree sweat)
troposphere
lowest layer of the atmosphere, all weather happens here
nimbo
prefix meaning rain bringing
cumulus
puffy white clouds, can develop vertically in cumulonimbus. They indicate a period of fair weather
cirrus
high level, wispy, "feather" looking clouds. Signs of clear weather, only clouds made of ice crystals instead of water droplets
stratus
low level, blanket like clouds, bring continuous periods of rain (usually several days) and drizzle
cumulonimbus
vertically developed thunder heads, bring the most sever weather. Thunderstorms, hail and lightning
dew point
the temperature at which water vapor condenses at ground level
humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air
relative humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air measured against how much water vapor the air can hold. Expressed as a %
cold front
mass of cold air pushing east, usually creates severe weather when it meets warm wet air masses
warm front
mass of war air pushing east
stationary front
boundary of air with no motion, can create days of continuous steady rain
polar easterlies
polar winds blowing east to west toward the equator
prevailing westerlies
dominant wind pattern for North America, winds blow west to east away from the equator
trade winds
winds that border the equator, blow toward the equator and east to west
sea breeze
ocean based wind caused by uneven heating of land and water, land heats faster causing air above the land to rise letting cooler ocean air blow in
land breeze
nighttime breeze caused by water holding onto heat longer, air above water is warmer, rises and lets cooler air from land blow in
mountain breeze
afternoon into night time breeze caused when warm valley air rises and cooler air from the mountain tops blow down into the valley
valley breeze
morning breeze caused when air on mountain tops heats early and rises, letting cooler valley air rush up mountainside
rain shadow
affect caused by the side of the mountain facing a storm blocking a majority of rain from getting past the mountains.
isobar
measurement line showing air pressure on a weather map
water cycle
process that recycles Earth's water supply
What is the process when water changes from a liquid to a gas?
evaporation
How is and area's temperatures affected by its location near a body of water
milder temperatures because water heats and cools slower than land
how does wind travel near mountains during the day?
up from valley "valley breeze"
How does wind travel near mountains at night?
down the mountain "mountain breeze"
How does wind travel near the sea during the day?
blows into shore "Sea breeze"
How does wind travel near the sea at night?
blows out to sea "land breeze"
Where does most of the precipitation on Earth end up?
Ocean
What is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place called?
weather
what is the amount of water vapor in the air called?
humidity
what affects the formation of clouds?
temperature and humidity -when water vapor in the air cools, it condenses, forming clouds
What are clouds made of?
water droplets or ice crystals
what is the weight of the air called?
air pressure
What type of weather can be expected with low barometic pressure?
stormy
what type of weather can be expected with high pressure air?
clear skies, fair
what causes wind?
changes in air pressure
what direction does air move?
from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
what is altitude?
the distance above sea level
What are the fluffy white clouds that look like cotton called?
cumulus
What type of weather does cumulus clouds bring?
fair weather but as they get larger they can bring showers
what do clouds with nimbo- or nimbus- added to the name usually bring?
storms/precipitation
what clouds are low, flat layers that block out the sun?
stratus
What type of cloud is high and wispy, usually indicating fair weather?
cirrus
what name is given to clouds that form at ground level?
fog
what is a large body of air that has the same temperature and humidity throughout called?
air mass
what will happen when a warm air mass meets a cold air mass?
warm air will rise
what is a front?
an area where 2 air masses meet
what weather usually results from a cold front?
heavy rain, thunderstorms, cold temperatures and sometimes snow.
what is it called when a warm air mass slowly replaces a cold air mass?
warm front
what type of weather results from a warm front?
rain, drizzly conditions, followed by warm, clear skies.
what type of weather usually occurs during a stationary front?
many days of overcast skies and rain
what type of front is formed when 2 air masses meet and do not have enough energy to move?
stationary front
what are the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time called?
climate
what are the 3 climate regions found on Earth?
tropical, temperate, and polar
Why are tropical regions the warmest?
they are near the equator where the sun's rays are strongest and more direct.
why are polar regions the coldest?
they are furthest away from the equator
how are temperatures affected by mountains?
cooler temps due to elevation
what causes deserts to form on one side of a mountain?
the rain shadow effect: precipitation is left at the top of the mountain leaving dry weather on the other side.
How is an area's temperature affected by its location near a body of water?
milder temperatures because water heats and cools more slowly than land.
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