184 terms

Fall 2018 Attractions and Close Relationships, Helping and Altruism, Emotion, Stress and Health, The Brain, Popular, General Soc Psy Vocabulary

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Evolutionary social psychology
An extension of evolutionary psychology that views complex social behaviour as adaptive, helping the individual, kin and the species as a whole to survive.
Averageness effect
Humans have evolved to prefer average and symmetrical faces to those with unusual or distinctive features.
Proximity
The factor of living close by is known to play an important role in the early stages of forming a friendship.
Familiarity
As we become more familiar with a stimulus (even another person), we feel more comfortable with it and we like it more.
Similarity of attitudes
One of the most important positive, psychological determinants of attraction.
Assortative mating
A non-random coupling of individuals based on their resemblance to each other on one or more characteristics.
Reinforcement-affect model
Model of attraction which postulates that we like people who are around when we experience a positive feeling (which itself is reinforcing).
Social exchange
People often use a form of everyday economics when they weigh up costs and rewards before deciding what to do.
Behaviourism
An emphasis on explaining observable behaviour in terms of reinforcement schedules.
Cost-reward ratio
Tenet of social exchange theory, according to which liking for another is determined by calculating what it will cost to be reinforced by that person.
Minimax strategy
In relating to others, we try to minimise the costs and maximise the rewards that accrue.
Profit
This flows from a relationship when the rewards that accrue from continued interaction exceed the costs.
Comparison level
A standard that develops over time, allowing us to judge whether a new relationship is profitable or not.
Equity theory
A special case of social exchange theory that defines a relationship as equitable when the ratio of inputs to outcomes are seen to be the same by both partners.
Distributive justice
The fairness of the outcome of a decision.
Procedural justice
The fairness of the procedures used to make a decision.
Need to affiliate
The urge to form connections and make contact with other people.
Social comparison
Comparing our behaviours and opinions with those of others in order to establish the correct or socially approved way of thinking and behaving
Hospitalism
A state of apathy and depression noted among institutionalised infants deprived of close comfort with a caregiver.
Attachment behaviour
The tendency of an infant to maintain close physical proximity with the mother or primary caregiver.
Attachment styles
Descriptions of the nature of people's close relationships, thought to be established in childhood.
Secure Attachment style
Trust in others; not worried about being abandoned; belief that one is worthy and liked; find it easy to be close to others; comfortable being dependent on others, and vice versa.
Avoidant Attachment style
Suppression of attachment needs; past attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; uncomfortable when close to others; find it difficult to trust others or to depend on them; feel nervous when anyone gets close.
Anxious Attachment style
Concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy; feel that a close partner does not really offer love, or may leave; want to merge with someone and this can scare people away.
Self-disclosure
The sharing of intimate information and feelings with another person
Emotion-in- relationships model
Close relationships provide a context that elicits strong emotions due to the increased probability of behaviour interrupting interpersonal expectations.
Love
A combination of emotions, cognitions and behaviours that can be involved in intimate relationships.
Three-factor theory of love
Hatfield and Walster distinguished three components of what we label 'love': a cultural concept of love, an appropriate person to love and emotional arousal.
Passion
roughly equivalent to sexual attraction
intimacy
refers to feelings of warmth, closeness and sharing
Consummate love
Sternberg argues that this is the ultimate form of love, involving passion, intimacy and commitment.
Personal dedication
positive attraction to a particular partner and relationship
Moral commitment
a sense of obligation, religious duty or social responsibility, controlled by a person's values and moral principles
Constraint commitment
factors that make it costly to leave a relationship,
such as lack of attractive alternatives, and various social, financial or legal investments in the relationship
Commitment
The desire or intention to continue an interpersonal relationship; our resolve to maintain the relationship, even in moments of crisis
Partner regulation
Strategy that encourages a partner to match an ideal standard of behaviour.
Relationship dissolution model
Duck's proposal of the sequence through which most long-term relationships proceed if they finally break down.
cognitive dissonance theory
is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas or values, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.
meta-analysis
examination of data from a number of independent studies of the same subject, in order to determine overall trends.
"an important component is the investigation of the consistency of treatment effects across studies"
Automatic Activation of Attitudes
"A person may experience the automatic activation of attitudes when he or she encounters a stimuli that triggers such an attitude - for example, if a person feels strongly about being allowed to smoke in a hospital and sees a no smoking sign there, this may trigger the attitude."
stimulus value
1. The strength of a stimulus. 2. The theoretical feature of a stimulus that will index itself as a reinforcer.
Affect
is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion
Attitude
in social psychology, a cognition, often with some degree of aversion or attraction, that reflects the classification and evaluation of objects and events.
idiosyncratic person
is someone who does things in his own way;
1.a characteristic, habit, mannerism, etc., that is peculiar to or distinctive of an individual. 2. the physical or mental constitution peculiar to an individual. 3. a peculiarity of the physical or mental constitution
equality
the state of being being the same for all, especially in status, rights, and opportunities.
affiliation need
to be with others, is powerful and pervasive, and underlies the way in which we form positive and lasting interpersonal relationships
altruism
unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Parts of the brain that are most involved in empathy, altruism and helping
Amygdala and prefrontal cortex
Monozygotic
identical twins
Dizygotic
fraternal twins
Reciprocal Altruism
helping others with the expectation that they will probably return the favor in the future
Social Exchange
a theory that suggests that our behavior is based on maximizing benefits and minimizing costs
Reciprocity Norm
expectation that people will help those who have helped them; if someone helps us, then we should help them in the future, and we should help people now with the expectation that they will help us later if we need it.
Kinship
A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
Why does being in a good mood make us helpful?
1)indicates that the environment is not dangerous and therefore that we can safely help others.
2)we like other people more when we are in good moods, and that may lead us to help them
3)the possibility the helping makes us feel good about ourselves, thereby maintaining our positive mood.
guilt
the normal feeling that arises from the conscience when a person acts against internal values
Effects of guilt
1)increases our desire to create positive relationships with other people.
2) This feeling is very comfortable and we will go out of our way to reduce any of this feelings we are experiencing.
3)one way to relieve our uncomfortable feeling is by helping;to try to make up for our transgressions in any way possible, including by helping others.
Empathy
A response in which a person understands, and even feels, another person's distress and experiences events the way the other person does.
Personal Distress
The negative emotions that we may experience when we view another person's suffering. Because we feel so uncomfortable, we may simply leave the scene rather than stopping.
social situation
the people around us when we are deciding whether or not to help— perhaps is the most important influence on whether or not we will help.
Pluralistic ignorance
when people think that others in their environment have information that they do not have and when they base their judgments on what they think the others are thinking.
Diffusion of responsibility
we assume that others will take action and therefore we do not take action ourselves
Affective Reactions
the physical and emotional reaction that a person has to a situation. This can be a reaction of happiness and pride in winning a competition, the shock and sorrow of receiving bad news, witnessing a tragedy or any other appropriate reaction to events.
Inappropriate Affect
term that refers to an individual's display of emotions that do not properly fit a circumstance, such as smiling in reaction to a tragedy, or failing to show emotion at a time when an emotional reaction would normally be called for.
Affect
general term for feelings, emotions, or moods. To say someone has negative affect means that they have feelings, emotions, or moods that are negative in nature. You can think of this as just another way to say "feelings".
dependency oriented helping
the helper takes control of the situation and solves the problem facing the individual, leaving little left for the individual to accomplish on his or her own, the behavior may be seen as indicating that the individual cannot help her/himself.
Autonomy-oriented help
reflects the helper's view that, given the appropriate tools, recipients can help themselves
Individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Social Responsibility Norm
We should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks - involving a sense of duty and obligation.
Latané and Darley's Model of Helping
4 Steps: Noticing, Interpreting, Taking Responsibility, Implementing Action
Noticing
People have to recognize an emergency to be able to respond to it, which can be super difficult in big cities because of the amount of stimuli that are around. People from rural areas are more likely to help than those in big cities because there are less blockades to noticing an emergency
Interpreting
• Even if we notice something, we may not interpret it as an emergency because we tend to take situations as being benign, making the situation often ambiguous in our minds.
• This is made even harder when there are other people around who are also unsure of what's going on - we look to others to remove ambiguity, but when they don't know what's going on, it creates even more uncertainty.
Altruistic (Prosocial) Personality
Some people are more helpful than others across a variety of situations, which means they have this personality. Ppl with this personality tend to show empathy and sympathy for others and feel that it's right and normal to follow the norm of social responsibility - helping more in a variety of areas and also helping faster.
Just World Beliefs
Beliefs that people get what they deserve in life - more held by conservatives than liberals.
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our aware- ness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultane- ously triggers (1) physiological respons- es and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
two-factor theory
the Schachter- Singer theory that to experience emo- tion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspi- ration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
catharsis
emotional release. In psy- chology, the catharsis hypothesis main- tains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well- being (for example, physical and eco- nomic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
:relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
:behavioral medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease.
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
stress
the process by which we per- ceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three states—alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.
psychophysiological illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system
B lymphocytes
form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections;
T lymphocytes
form in the thymus and other lym- phatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
coping
alleviating stress using emo- tional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.
problem-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
aerobic exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.
biofeedback
a system for electroni- cally recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pres- sure or muscle tension.
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typi- cally are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
Immune system disease caused by the a virus which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weakness set in and other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten an infected person's demise
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
A virus that attacks and destroys the human immune system.
pessimism
the tendency to focus on the negative and expect the worst
Depression
A prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance
What are the three major parts of your brain?
• the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
What is the function of the cerebrum?
The largest of the three brain sections accounts for about 85 percent of the brain's weight, and contains the largest of the three brain sections, accounts for about 85 percent of the brain's weight, and has four lobes
What is the function the cerebellum?
The region controls voluntary movement and thought
What is the function the brain stem?
• connects the spinal cord and the brain. It controls functions that keep people alive such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and food digestion. Those activities occur without any thought.
What are the four lobes of the brain?
frontal, parietal, temporal and occip
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
helps people understand what they see and feel.
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
determines personality and emotions.
What is the function the occipital lobe?
Where vision functions are located.
What is the function the temporal lobe?
Where Hearing and word recognition abilities are located.
At what age do doctors generally agree the brain stops growing?
During the first three years of life, the brain experiences most of its growth and develops most of its potential for learning
What is synapto genesis?
The creation of pathways for brain cells to communicate which occurs during brain development.
How do Inhalants, such as glue, paint, gasoline and aerosols, impact the brain?
They destroy the outer lining of nerve cells and make them unable to communicate with one another.
How does marijuana impact the brain?
It hinders memory, learning, judgment and reaction times, while steroids cause aggression and violent mood swings.
How does Ecstasy impact the brain?
It has been found that drug destroys neurons that make serotonin, a chemical crucial in controlling sleep, violence, mood swings and sexual urges.
What are neurons?
The basic functional units of the nervous system.
What are the neuron parts?
They are the nerve cell body, axon and dendrite
What occurs when the neuron parts rapidly fire?
Thought turns into movement.
What is a nerve synapse?
The space from one nerve cell to the next nerve cell.
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemicals that help to carry impulses across the synapse
What is the focus of the "old brain" ?
regulates basic survival functions,breathing, moving, resting, and feeding, and creates our experiences of emotion.
Mammals, including humans, have developed further brain advanced brain functions—for instance, better memory, more sophisticated social interactions, and the ability to experience emotions. Humans have a very large and highly developed outer layer known as the ______________, which makes us particularly adept at these processes.
cerebral cortex
brain stem
is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. It's designed to control the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses
medulla
the area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing.
pons
a structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking.
reticular formation
a long narrow network of neurons running through the medulla and the pons.
thalamus
is the egg-shaped structure above the brain stem that applies still more filtering to the sensory information that is coming up from the spinal cord and through the reticular formation, and it relays some of these remaining signals to the higher brain levels
cerebellum
consists of two wrinkled ovals behind the brain stem. It functions to coordinate voluntary movement.
limbic system
is a brain area, located between the brain stem and the two cerebral hemispheres, that governs emotion and memory. It includes the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus.
amygdala
consists of two "almond-shaped" clusters (amygdala comes from the Latin word for "almond") and is primarily responsible for regulating our perceptions of, and reactions to, aggression and fear
hypothalamus
is a brain structure that contains a number of small areas that perform a variety of functions, including the important role of linking the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
hippocampus
consists of two "horns" that curve back from the amygdala. It is important in storing information in long-term memory
cerebral cortex
the outer bark-like layer of our brain that allows us to so successfully use language, acquire complex skills, create tools, and live in social groups. Humans have a larger one which sets us apart from other animals
corticalization
the folding of the cerebral cortex which allows for greater surface area and size increasing capacities for learning, remembering and thinking in humans
cerebral cortex
It is only about one tenth of an inch thick, it makes up more than 80% of the brain's weight. Contains 20 billion nerve cells and 300 trillion synaptic connections.
glial cells (glia)
billions of cells that surround and link to the neurons, protecting them, providing them with nutrients, and absorbing unused neurotransmitters.
cerebral cortex
is divided into two hemispheres, and each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, each separated by folds known as fissures.
contralateral control
The brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
motor cortex
the part of the cortex that controls and executes movements of the body by sending signals to the cerebellum and the spinal cord.
The brain has ______ sensory receptors, these patients feel no pain
no
somatosensory cortex
an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skin's sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated
visual cortex
is the area located in the occipital lobe (at the very back of the brain) that processes visual information
auditory cortex
which is responsible for hearing and language
association areas
in which sensory and motor information is combined and associated with our stored knowledge. This is involved in higher mental functions, such as learning, thinking, planning, judging, moral reflecting, figuring, and spatial reasoning.
Neuroplasticity
refers to the brain's ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. It enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.
neurogenesis
the forming of new neurons
brain lateralization
the idea that the left and the right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions.
corpus callosum
the region that normally connects the two halves of the brain and supports communication between the hemispheres
The left hemisphere
is also better at math and at judging time and rhythm. It is also superior in coordinating the order of complex movements—for example, lip movements needed for speech.
The right hemisphere
is able to recognize objects, including faces, patterns, and melodies, and it can put a puzzle together or draw a picture.
About ____ of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only ____ are primarily left-handed.
90%, 10%
Popularity
the state or condition of being liked, admired, or supported by many people. the popularity of a person, idea, item or other concept can be defined in terms of liking, attraction, dominance and superiority
Status
High social position that a person holds, First type of popularity define by whether someone is well known, widely emulated and able to bend others to his/her will. "cool kid"
Likability
behaving in a friendly manner and finding a common ground among; readily or easily liked; pleasing: those we feel close to and trust, and the people who makes happy when we spend time with them.
relational aggression
an act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person's relationship or social standing
metastasize
to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
zero-sum
a situation in which one person or group can win something only by causing another person or group to lose
DNA
As discussed in Popular, our experiences with popularity can alter this.
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another in group situations
empathy
Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives. A person's ability to recognize and share someone else's perspective;Knowledge of the other person's struggle is vital
sympathy
a feeling of pity or sorrow for the suffering or distress of another;concerned for the other person's plight.
compassion
is deep awareness of the suffering of another, coupled with the wish to relieve it. ;to view a person's struggle from your own perspective (point of view)
Loneliness
creates a deep psychological wound, one that distorts our perceptions and scrambles our thinking. It makes us believe that those around us care much less than they actually do. It make us really afraid to reach out, because why set yourself up for rejection and heartache when your heart is already aching more than you can stand?
defined purely subjectively. It depends solely on whether you feel emotionally or socially disconnected from those around you.
Failure
lack of success; a single failure can convince a person that he/she cann't succeed, therefore believes it as true.You have to fight feelings of helplessness. You have to gain control over the situation. And you have to break this kind of negative cycle before it begins.
self-esteem
how much you value, respect, and feel confident about yourself
rumination
repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences; can contribute to depression
Psychological Hygiene
taking care of your mental healthy; focusing on positive thinking and habits
Depression
A prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness
self-esteem
how much you value, respect, and feel confident about yourself
self-control
a person's ability to use responsibility to override emotions
Body
wants to do what feels good
Ego
wants to do what looks good
soul
wants to do what is good
negative frequency dependent selection
the more rare a trait is the more valuable it is (Right & Left handedness)
positive frequency dependent selection
the fitness of a phenotype increases as it becomes more common
Phenotype
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup