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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Midterm Review: Everything
I don't suggest using this but if you want to see everything it's here.
Terms in this set (74)
Issued the Edict of Nantes and rebuilt France, as well as built the foundation for royal absolutism. They built royal bureaucracy and reduced the influence of nobles.
Used the sun as a symbol of power, believed in divine right, and took complete control of France's government and set a goal for other monarchs.
Created the idea that people were born reasonable and moral.
Created the idea that people were born cruel and evil, and needed to be strictly controlled.
Intellectuals of the 18th Century Enlightenment. They applied reason to science, politics, economics, philosophy, etc.
The king that was overthrown during the French Revolution. He made an attempt to escape which got him thrown in prison and later executed.
A group that represented the three estates in France. They were necessary to solve the economic crisis under Louis XIV.
Bourgeoise (French Revolution)
The wealthy middle class, which was part of the third estate. They were supporters of the Revolution because it removed the titles that once differentiated them from the favorable second estate.
Bourgeoise (Industrial Revolution)
The middle class, often the factory owners.
Committee of Public Safety
A 12-member group lead by Robespierre created by the National Convention. They worked to save the revolution. They added a mass levee that demanded all citizens contribute to the war effort.
Congress of Vienna
A group of European leaders hosted by Emperor Francis I of Austria. Their goal was to create lasting peace, create a balance of power and protect the monarchical system.
People of the French Revolution that maintained a loyalty to the restored monarchy.
A three man board that was created by Napoleon that replaced the Directory.
A 5-man, 2-house legislature that suppressed rioters. Many of the legislators were supporters of a constitutional monarchy. They faced discontent because of the war with Austria and Great Britain and the revival of royalist opinions.
A radical group of middle-class lawyers and intellectuals that advanced the republican cause. They were supporters of the Reign of Terror.
A political affiliation during the French Revolution that included the Girondins. This group did not associate with the Royalists or the Radicals.
The emperor of France who was also a well known military leader.
A group created by the third estate that represented the people of France because of the lack of reform.
The new name of the Legislative Assembly after it was taken over by radicals (Jacobins). Under this group, suffrage was extended to all male citizens, the monarchy and nobility was abolished and the country was declared a republic. They were also responsible for the trial and execution of Louis XVI.
A political affiliation during the French Revolution, that includes the Jacobins and the sans-culottes. This group was outwardly against the Old Regime.
The leader of the Committee of Public Safety, as well as a supporter of the death penalty, general will, religious toleration and anti-slavery. He was one of the reasons the Reign of Terror took place.
A regime in France that held most of the wealth and privileges. They owned 10% of land and paid no taxes.
A regime in France that was given rights by the government such as top government and military positions. They did not pay taxes, though they had lesser income than other regimes.
A regime in France that included the Bourgeoisie, rural peasants, and urban workers. Most in this regime made very little money and had to suffer high taxes other regimes did not have.
A supporter of laissez-faire, the spreading of wealth, as well as laws being guided with less force.
A German philosopher that created Scientific Socialism, and later co-wrote The Communist Manifesto in 1848.
The co-writer of The Communist Manifesto.
The Chancellor of Prussia that helped unify the German states through force.
The Prime Minister of Sardinia that helped unify the Italian states and make Victor Emmanuel II the king of Italy.
The Kaiser of Germany that appointed Bismarck to gain him control over the united German states.
The creator and leader of the "Young Italy" society. He helped with unofficially unifying some within his secret patriotic society, however he was later exiled because of his underground work.
The nickname for Louis XIV, who took the sun as a symbol of absolute power.
Edict of Nantes
A document that granted religious toleration to the Huguenots.
Louis XIV's grand castle and a representation of his wealth and power over France.
A fort located in Paris that was used as a prison.
A military action by France under Napoleon where Britain's ports were blocked off to prevent people or supplies from entering or exiting the country.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
A document created by the National Assembly declaring basic human rights. It stated that man if free and equal with natural rights. The document asserted freedom of religion, levied taxes, made all male citizens equal under law and gave all Frenchmen right to office.
A new law that used Enlightenment ideas, though it did undo some Revolutionary rights, such as citizenship for women.
The Battle of Waterloo
The battle between Austria and France because Austria wanted revenge after the Battle of Austerlitz. The French won again and Austria surrendered land.
The use of children in industry or business, especially when illegal or considered inhumane.
Common Diseases During the Industrial Revolution
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion using water and coal
A means of which a person can get from one location to another. This was refined and bettered during the Industrial Revolution.
Small and overcrowded apartments that were low quality and housed many factory workers
The first industry to be industrialized in the 18th century
The war started by Bismarck to gain the Germanic provinces of Alsace-Lorraine from France. The Germans/Prussians won.
A movement that, using force, united a country as well as expand its territory.
A movement that started in 1815 with nationalism that resulted in one country unified through the political advancements of Cavour.
"Blood and Iron"
The method through which Bismarck wanted Germany to expand.
A meeting in Germany that outlined the rules for imperialism and expansion into Africa
Scramble for Africa
The period after King Leopold of Belgium sent Henry Stanley to explore the Congo, making other European powers want to claim land in Africa.
Sphere of Influence
When an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges over another area
A sovereign head of state, especially a king, queen, or emperor.
An intellectual movement that applies reason rather than tradition to government and society.
Concordat of 1801
An agreement between Napoleon and the pope that made peace. It kept the Catholic church under state control and it recognized religious freedom for Catholics.
Reign of Terror
A period of time from July 1793 to July 1794 where the French government was overrun by radicals, and people suspected to be against the republic were publicly executed. Over 40,000 died from all classes, though most were peasants and rioters (sans-culottes).
A form of colonization where a parent country sends officials and soldiers to administer colonies.
A form of colonization where a parent country uses sultans, chiefs, and local rulers and encourage children of the ruling class to get an education in the parent country.
Storming of the Bastille
An attack on a prison in Paris in 1789. This marked the beginning of the French Revolution and acted as a sign of the power of the people.
A form of government in which a king or queen as complete control over the government.
The justification for a monarchical government which says that the king or queen has the god-given right to have absolute rule over their country.
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
Rights that belong to humans from birth. These include rights to life, liberty and property.
An agreement where people gave up the state of nature for organized society.
An economical and political system where a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.
A form of socialism that resolves class struggle by dividing all property and wealth among the people.
The movement of people into cities
The political ideology relating most closely to monarchy and absolute power. Some key points of this ideology was the support of pre-French Revolution ideas, as well as the restoration of royal families.
The political ideology that supported free market, natural rights, and elections. One key point of this ideology was a limited, constitutional government.
A group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.
The belief that one's loyalty belongs to a group of people who share a common culture and history.
Domination of a weaker country by the political, economic, and/or cultural life of another more powerful country or region.
The application of Darwin's ideas to war and economic competition
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