74 terms

Unit 2 - Honors World History

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Empire
an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly especially an emperor or empress.
Zhou Dynasty
(1050BC-400BC) Longest dynasty in Chinese history. Established a new political order with king at the highest level, then lords and warriors and then peasants.
Qin Dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall; embraced Legalism as a state philosophy
Mandate of Heaven
in Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority; can be lost if the Chinese rulers became inept or corrupt
Civil Service Exam
In Imperial China starting in the Han dynasty, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the nationwide administrative bureaucracy.
Qin Shihuangdi
(r.221-210 BCE) The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty who believed strongly in Legalism and sought to strengthen the centralized China through public works; known for his elaborate tomb surrounded by terracotta soldiers
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct; informed and structured Chinese political authority
Five Relationships
Confucian philosophy about social order where everyone has a place and respect is paid to elders, parents, and the government. The relationships are, ruler to ruled, father to son, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, friend to friend.
Filial Piety
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.
Daoism
philosophical system developed by Lao-zi advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events; believed in balance with nature, spiritual nature of rivers and mountains; influenced Chinese culture indirectly
Legalism
Chinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws; adopted by the Qin Dynasty but rejected by later Chinese rulers
Silk Road
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Famous for its exchange of luxury goods, the spread of Buddhism and Christianity
Han Dynasty
(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalim.
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms; originated with ancient Vedic scripts believed to be brought to S. Asia by Aryans from the Caucus Mountains
Buddhism
Belief system that started in India in the 500's BCE. Happiness and salvation can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
Reincarnation
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Dharma
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties; embracing one's caste assignment
Moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society; originated in India with Hinduism; rejected by Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama
The Indian prince who is said to have founded Buddhism; he reached enlightenment and wanted to help others do the same
Nirvana
The state of englightenment for Buddhists.
Four Noble Truths
as taught by the Buddha, the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism; they include: ) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering
Indian Ocean Trade
world's richest maritime trading network that was essential for the prosperity of East Africa
Monsoons
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons; blew throughout the Indian Ocean impacting trade and South Asia climates
Mauryan Empire
Classical South Asian empire that lasted from 321 BCE to 185 BCE; initially was Hindu and embraced the caste system but later adapted to Buddhism after Emperor Ashoka converted
Emperor Ashoka
Mauryan emperor who first expanded the empire through warfare, but after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in 262 BC, he converted to Buddhism; built edicts and pillars around India to spread Buddhist beliefs and teachings
Gupta Empire
320-550 CE; Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism; The decentralized empire that emerged after the Mauryan Empire, and whose founder is Chandra Gupta
city-state
a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state.
Polis
A city-state in ancient Greece.
Acropolis
Greek for "high city". The chief temples of the city were located here including the parthenon
Oligarchy
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives; present in the Greek city-state of Athens
Persian Wars
A series of wars between the Greeks (mainly Athens) and the Persians in which the Greeks were usually victorious; helped solidify the identity of Athenians as carriers of civilization
Greek Architecture
the use of post and lintel construction and symmetrical balance. Included 6 main parts of a temple: cornice, pediment, frieze, capitol, shaft, and base. The three columns types were Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
Greek Philosophy
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
Socrates
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
Plato
(430-347 BCE) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
Aristotle
A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato
Socratic Method
way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question-and-answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves
Athens
A direct democratic Greek polis (city-state) which accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta and sometimes the Persians
Sparta
A powerful Greek miliary polis (city-state) that was often at war with Athens. Used slaves known as helots to provide agricultural labor.
Delian League
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Parthenon
A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age.
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Alexander the Great
Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture (Hellenism) across the Middle East
Hellenistic Culture
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Plebian
an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic
Patrician
In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class.
Tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
Senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Consul
Under the Roman Republic, one of the two magistrates holding supreme civil and military authority. Nominated by the Senate and elected by citizens in the Comitia Centuriata, the consuls held office for one year and each had power of veto over the other.
Republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Julius Caesar
Part of the first triumvirate who eventually became "emperor for life". Was assassinated by fellow senators in 44 B.C.E.
Pantheon
A group of gods; a group of people so accomplished in a skill or field that they seem like gods
Bread and Circuses
A Roman bribery method of coping with class difference. Entertainment and food was offered to keep plebeians quiet without actually solving unemployment problems.
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, helped Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Triumvirate
in ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
Twelve Tables
Completed in 449 BCE, these civil laws developed by the Roman Republic following demands by plebeians.
Roman Law
this Roman contribution dealt mostly with the rights of Roman citizens; one belief was that it should be fair and equal to all people
Roman Slavery
35% of the population in Rome was slaves making it a true slave society; slaves were often prisoners of war and resulted from imperial expansion
Roman entertainment
Circus Maximus, horse and chariot races, plays, gladiatorial shows, kept the poor busy
Aqueduct
A raised channel used to carry water from mountains into cities; a technological innovation often utilized by the Romans
concrete
building material made by mixing small stones and sand with limestone, clay, and water; discovered and used by the Romans
Pax Romana
"Roman Peace" - a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire that resulted from strong centralized political authority and a thriving culture, lasting from 27 B.C. to 180 CE
New Testament
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and of his early followers
Jesus Christ
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God.
Paul
Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world; contributed to the legacy of Christianity as a missionary faith
Diocletian
(245-313 CE) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
Constantine
(274 CE - 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Constantinople
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine Empire, founded by Emperor Constantine, and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul