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42 terms

Biology 4.1-4.3

4.1 through 4.3 flashcards for those who have mrs. king
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chemical energy
energy held in the bonds that hold the molecules together
why do all things need chemical energy?
move, grow, reproduce, make things, active transport
what turns the food we eat into ATP?
mitochondria
what is the process of the mitochondria turning food into ATP called?
cellular respiration
what does ATP stand for?
adenosine triphosphate
what is the unit of energy that a cell can use?
ATP
what is made during cellular respiration?
ATP
what is broken off of ATP to make it into ADP?
a phosphate
where is all the energy found?
in the high energy bonds
how does ATP turn back into ADP?
it goes to the mitochondria and gets another phosphate
what is the ATP cycle?
ATP ENERGY - P = ADP MITOCHONDRIA + P = ATP
what is the number one source of ATP for the cell?
carbohydrates- 36 ATP
what is the second source of ATP?
lipids- 146 ATP
what is the third source of ATP?
protein- about the same as carbohydrates
why are proteins so rarely broke down in the cell?
they are used for so many other things
chemosynthesis
when organisms use surrounding nutrients or chemicals to make or eat food in the absence of sunlight
producers
make their own food through photosynthesis
consumers
eat or consume food
photosynthesis
the process of turning sun into chemical energy for food
where does photosynthesis take place?
chloroplasts
stroma
goo inside of chloroplasts
where do light dependent reactions take place?
thylakoids
where do light independent reactions take place?
stroma
chlorophyll
pigment
where is chlorophyll located?
thylakoids
what is the functions of the thylakoid?
absorbing and using the sunlight
what color does chlorophyll reflect?
green
what is the photosynthesis equation?
Sun + Carbondioxide + Water = Sugar + Oxygen
what elements do the light dependent reactions use?
sun, water, and oxygen
what is the energy from electrons used for?
making ATP and NADPH
what happens when sunlight hits chlorophyll?
electrons get excited and bounce down electron transport chain
ezymes split what to replace electrons lost in the chlorophyll?
H2O molecules
what is the waste product of the split of H2O?
oxygen
electron transport chain
series of proteins in the membrane
what is pumped from low to high concentration in the thylakoids?
hydrogen ions
what do the H+ ions go through during diffusion?
ATP synthase
what elements does the light independent reaction use?
carbon dioxide and sugar
what is another name for the light independent reaction?
sugar factory
how many CO2 molecules are pulled apart and then put back together in a series of steps?
six
what is the end result of the light independent reaction?
C6H12O6
why is glucose important?
everybody's food and oxygen for world
how does a plant store glucose?
either as starch or cellulose (cell wall)