U.S. Government Final Review
Terms in this set (70)
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government
government by the people
federal system of government
a type of government in which power is shared between the national government and smaller regional governments (states) within the nation
A written plan of government
The U.S. Constitution
"The supreme law of the land." Written in 1787 at Philadelphia Convention to replace Articles of Confederation and create stronger central government. Outlines structure & power of 3 branches of national government. Oldest written constitution still in use (but amended 27 times plus myriad informal amendments).
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. Demanded by Anti-Federalists to limit the power of the federal government.
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
A government in which the people rule by their own consent. A major principle of the Constitution.
Review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act. Elevated the Supreme Court's power and provided balance in the three branches of government.
Override a presidential veto
2/3 of both houses
Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
Right to bear arms
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
Criminal Proceedings; Due Process; Eminent Domain; Double Jeopardy; Protection from Self incrimination
The right to a Speedy Trial by jury, representation by an attorney for an accused person
Right to a trial by jury in civil cases
No cruel and unusual punishment
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
The power to confirm Judges to the Supreme Court resides in
powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
Powers given to the state government alone
An official order from the federal government for a state to do something.
a position that favors national action in dealing with problems
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed. Found in Article IV of the Constitution.
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
Qualifications for US Senate
At least 30 years old, state resident, and US resident for at least 9 years prior to running.
Qualifications of US Representative
At least 25 years old, district resident, and US resident for at least 7 years prior to running.
Qualifications for President
35 years old, born in the U.S., and has to have lived in the U.S. for 14 years
The residents of a congressional district or state.
Speaker of the House
the leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives. Second in the presidential line of succession, behind the Vice President.
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish (give up) the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
A procedure used in the Senate to limit debate on a bill. Used to end a filibuster.
people hired by private groups to influence government decision makers
Public-works bills, through which Congress appropriates billions of dollars for local projects.
How a bill becomes a law
Bill is introduced in either house; sent to committee to be approved, rewritten, or killed; sent to the floor for debate and vote; sent to the other chamber for the same process; both houses pass the revised bill; sent to president for approval; president signs, (or, if vetoed, must have 2/3 vote of both houses to override); bill becomes a law
Presidential term limits
22nd amendment, a President cannot serve longer than 2 terms or 10 years.
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president. Often called a winner-take-all system.
Commander in Chief
term for the president as commander of the nation's armed forces
Roles of the Vice President
As President of the Senate, the vice president has two primary duties: to cast a vote in the event of a Senate deadlock and to preside over and certify the official vote count of the U.S. Electoral College.
An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary.
rules that have the force of law
Power of the president to forgive a federal offense without penalty or grant release from a penalty already imposed. .
The role of the president in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and effecting executive agreements.
Head of State
The role of the president as ceremonial head of the government.
The role of the president as head of the executive branch of the government.
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics.
Legislation that began the federal merit system
Government Corporations (Examples)
Government agencies that perform services that might be provided by the private sector but that either involve insufficient financial incentive or are better provided when they are somehow linked with government; ex: Amtrac, US Postal Service
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case.
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
writ of certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review
Constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens. Most cases that arrive before the Supreme Court deal with these.
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
1. House passes articles of impeachment by majority
2. Senate tries and 2/3 must convict
step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional conventions called by 50 states THEN the new amendment!
The lifting (taking away/removal) of government restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities.
government intervention in a market that affects the production of a good
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