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60 terms

music appreciation

key terms from the first 9 chapters of Norton's "The Enjoyment of Music"
STUDY
PLAY
melody
Line or tune in music
contour
How the melody moves up or down
range
A melody's span of pitches
interval
Span between two pitches in a melody
conjunct melody
Moves in small, connected intervals
disjunct melody
Moves in large, leaping intervals
phrases
Units that make up a melody
cadences
Small resting period at the end of a phrase
countermelody
Secondary, accompanying melody
rhythm
Moves music forward in time
Meter
Marked off in MEASURES, organizes the BEATS, often starts with a DOWNBEAT
Simple meters
Duple, triple, quadruple
Compound meters
Subdivide each beat into three, rather than two, subbeats
Rhythmic complexities
Upbeats, offbeats, syncopation, polyrhythm
Additive meters
Used in some world musics
Nonmetric
Obscured pulse
Harmony
Describes simultaneous events in music
Chord
Simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches
Scale
Sequence of pitches, makes up a chord
Triad chord
Most common chord in Western music
Major/minor scales
Harmony is derived from them
Tonic
Central tone around which a melody is built, this principle is called tonality
Dissonance
Unstable or discordant harmony
Consonance
Occurs with the resolution of dissonance
Drone
Single sustained tone
Texture
interweaving of the melodic lines with harmony in music.
Monophony
single-voiced music without accompaniment.
Heterophony
multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time.
Polyphony
many-voiced texture based on counterpoint—one line set against another.
Homophony
occurs when one melodic voice is prominent over the accompanying lines, or voices
Homorhythmic Texture
subcategory of homophony in which all the voices move in the same rhythm.
Imitation
when a melodic idea is presented in one voice, then restated in another (canons, rounds)
Form
organizing principle in music; its basic elements are repetition, contrast, and variation.
Strophic form
common in songs, features repeated music for each stanza of text.
Binary form
A-B
Ternary form
A-B-A
Theme
a melodic idea used as a building block in a large-scale work and can be broken into small, component fragments known as motives.
Sequence
results when a motive is repeated at a different pitch
Responsorial music
a repetitive style involving a soloist and a group.
Ostinato
the repetition of a short musical melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern.
Movements
Large-scale compositions, such as symphonies and sonatas, are divided into sections, or movements.
Tempo
rate of speed, or pace, of the music.
Tempo terms
llegro (fast), moderato (moderate), adagio (quite slow), accelerando (speeding up the pace), and ritardando (slowing the pace).
Metronome
device that indicates the tempo, or beats per minute, by sounding a pulse.
Dynamics
describe the volume, or how loud or soft the music is played; Italian dynamic terms include forte (loud) and piano (soft).
Timbre
tone color
Instrument
generates vibrations and transmits them into the air.
Types of human voice
soprano and alto for female voices, and tenor and bass for male voices.
Instrument classification
aerophones (such as flutes or horns), chordophones (such as violins or guitars), idiophones (such as bells or cymbals) and membranophones (drums).
Four families of instruments
strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
Stringed instruments
violin, viola, cello, and double bass; plucked strings include harp and guitar.
Woodwind instruments
flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and saxophone.
Brass instruments
trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba.
Percussion instruments
idiophones (xylophone, cymbals, triangle) and membranophones (timpani, bass drum); some instruments are pitched (chimes) while others are unpitched (tambourine).
Keyboard instruments
piano and organ, do not fit neatly into the Western classification system.
a cappella singing
no accompaniment.
Chamber music
nsemble music for small groups, with one player per part.
Standard chamber ensembles
include string quartets as well as woodwind quintets and brass quintets.
Orchestra
features eighty to one hundred players.
Conductor
beats patterns with a baton to help the performers keep the same tempo.