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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes


observable and measurable actions of people and animals

cognitive activity

private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving


An in-depth explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a lot of evidence

basic research

research that is conducted for its own sake, without seeking a solution to a specific problem


an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings


the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings


the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes


the school of psychology, founded by John B. Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior

Gestalt psychology

the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into meaningful wholes


the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior

biological perspective

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior

cognitive perspective

the point of view that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior

humanistic perspective

the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices

psychoanalytic perspective

the perspective that emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces in behavior

learning perspective

the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior

social-learning perspective

the theory that suggests that people have the ability to change their environments or create new ones

sociocultural perspective

in psychology, the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes

goals of psychology

to observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes

clinical psychologist

a psychologist trained to deal with serious mental illness; they do psychological testing, psychotherapy, and conduct research

counseling psychologist

a psychologist who helps people with day to day types of problems


a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication

school psychologist

a psychologist who helps students with problems that interfere with learning

sports psychologist

a psychologist who helps athletes improve their performance using techniques like relaxation and visualization

forensic psychologist

a psychologist who works in the legal system

consumer psychologist

a psychologist who studies the behavior of consumers

social psychologist

a psychologist who studies how people and social situations affect the individual person

developmental psychologist

a psychologist who studies how people change throughout their lives

Wilhelm Wundt

founder of structuralism

William James

founder of functionalism

Sigmund Freud

founder of psychoanalysis

John B. Watson

founder of behaviorism

B.F. Skinner

psychologist who studied the effects of rewards and punishments on behavior


Greek philosopher who said, "Know thyself"


Greek physician who said that abnormal behavior is linked to abnormalities in the brain


Greek philosopher who wrote Peri Psyches (About the Mind)

Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler

the founders of Gestalt psychology

mental process

internal, private activity of our minds; can't be directly observed


way of getting knowledge about the world based on observation and reason

social science

a science that focuses on societies and the individuals in them

human services

area of psychology that involves helping people with mental health problems

applied psychology

area of psychology that seeks to solve problems in real world situations

research psychology

area of psychology interested in learning about behavior, but not necessarily applying it

scientific revolution

a period of time when people began to focus on observations, not superstitions, in understanding the world

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