44 terms

PsychHB - Ch. 01 - What Is Psychology?

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
observable and measurable actions of people and animals
cognitive activity
private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving
An in-depth explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a lot of evidence
basic research
research that is conducted for its own sake, without seeking a solution to a specific problem
an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings
the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings
the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes
the school of psychology, founded by John B. Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
Gestalt psychology
the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions into meaningful wholes
the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior
biological perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
cognitive perspective
the point of view that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior
humanistic perspective
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices
psychoanalytic perspective
the perspective that emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces in behavior
learning perspective
the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
social-learning perspective
the theory that suggests that people have the ability to change their environments or create new ones
sociocultural perspective
in psychology, the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes
goals of psychology
to observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes
clinical psychologist
a psychologist trained to deal with serious mental illness; they do psychological testing, psychotherapy, and conduct research
counseling psychologist
a psychologist who helps people with day to day types of problems
a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication
school psychologist
a psychologist who helps students with problems that interfere with learning
sports psychologist
a psychologist who helps athletes improve their performance using techniques like relaxation and visualization
forensic psychologist
a psychologist who works in the legal system
consumer psychologist
a psychologist who studies the behavior of consumers
social psychologist
a psychologist who studies how people and social situations affect the individual person
developmental psychologist
a psychologist who studies how people change throughout their lives
Wilhelm Wundt
founder of structuralism
William James
founder of functionalism
Sigmund Freud
founder of psychoanalysis
John B. Watson
founder of behaviorism
B.F. Skinner
psychologist who studied the effects of rewards and punishments on behavior
Greek philosopher who said, "Know thyself"
Greek physician who said that abnormal behavior is linked to abnormalities in the brain
Greek philosopher who wrote Peri Psyches (About the Mind)
Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler
the founders of Gestalt psychology
mental process
internal, private activity of our minds; can't be directly observed
way of getting knowledge about the world based on observation and reason
social science
a science that focuses on societies and the individuals in them
human services
area of psychology that involves helping people with mental health problems
applied psychology
area of psychology that seeks to solve problems in real world situations
research psychology
area of psychology interested in learning about behavior, but not necessarily applying it
scientific revolution
a period of time when people began to focus on observations, not superstitions, in understanding the world