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Terms in this set (50)
Traditionally, the introductory courses in computer science focus on _______________.
What is a program?
instructions (a sequence of instructions, which enables a computer to perform a desired task)
What is a programmer?
person who writes a program for a computer
What was required to program the ENIAC?
rewiring the machine
What was required to simply enter numbers into the Mark-I calculator?
manipulating its 1,440 switches
What is another word for Machine Language?
What does programming in Machine Language mean?
you are directly manipulating the 1s and 0s of the computer's binary language
What computer first introduced Assembly Language?
Refer to your answer to the previous question. What was the name of the assembler in that computer?
Who is credited with making the term debugging popular and also wrote the first compiler?
Grace Hopper's immeasurable contributions to computer science have earned her the nickname "_______________ _______________".
List 2 Low-Level Languages.
Machine Language or Assembly Language
Refer to your answer to the previous question. Why are these languages considered "low-level?"
they function at, or very close to, the level of 1s and 0s
Describe a High-Level Language.
Uses English words as instructions
Describe a Very-High-Level Language.
Pictures (They use pictures that you can click and drag to program the computer)
What does a computer translator do?
translates a high-level language into low-level machine code
How does a compiler translate?
translates the entire program into an executable file before execution
How does an interpreter translate?
translates one program statement at a time during execution
What was the first successful programming language?
FORTRAN was designed for which groups of people?
for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers.
LISP is known for being one of the languages specifically designed to help develop _______ _______.
COBOL was designed for which group of people?
the business community
Who was the primary designer of COBOL?
After IBM standardized hardware with _____________, they set out to standardize software as well by creating _____________.
System/360---PL/I (Programming Language 1).
PL/I was created by combining all of the features of which 2 languages?
FORTRAN and COBOL
The intention was that PL/I would be "everything for everyone". The reality was this language was not popular. Explain why.
They don't like each other and its hard to learn (The reality was that the FORTRAN programmers did not like the COBOL features, the COBOL programmer's did not like the FORTRAN features, and new programmer's did not like the FORTRAN features, and new programmers found the language too complex and overwhelming to learn.)
Why did Tom Kurtz and John Kemeny create BASIC?
Basic way to learn language for non majors(The intention was that a simple basic easy to learn language would give non math and non-science majors the ability to use computers.)
Explain why the use of BASIC become widespread when personal computers came out in 1976.
The personal computers were able to handle a small language like BASIC rather than FORTRAN or COBOL
Why did a number of college professors did not like BASIC?
it did not teach proper programming structure
Niklaus Wirth created the language Pascal specifically for the purpose of ____________ ____
How is Pascal different from PL/I?
It is a very lean language
What was BCPL originally intended for?
For writing compliers
In 1972, an improved version of B was released. What was that language called?
What does OOP stand for?
Object Oriented Programming
In 1983, Bjarne Stroustrup created a new language by combining C What was that language called?
What is the first Platform Independent language?
What does "Platform Independence" mean?
A program created on one computer will work and have the exact same output on any computer.
What is the major difference between Java and C++?
C++ has choice (In C++ you have a choice to use OOP. Or not use OOP in Java, you do not have a choice you must use OOP.)
In 1998, the Lego Corporation created their first point-and-click language for use with their Lego Mindstorms robots. In 2006, they released their next language. What was that language called?
They called it NXT
Were early personal computers networked?
What is Sneaker Net?
running around to share computer information
The first practical networks for personal computers were called what?
What is a peer-to-peer network?
a small group of computers with a common purpose all connected to each other
What does LAN stand for?
Local Area Network
What is a server?
Special dedicated computers
The Internet came about during what period in our history?
The Cold War
Where in the Internet is the central location where all the control computers are located?
There is no central location where all the control computers are located.
Normally, businesses and schools have a series of LANs that all connect into a large network called what?
What does ISP stand for?
Internet Service provider
Wireless connections are convenient, but there are some problems. List 2 of them
Unreliable signals, security issues
Recommended textbook explanations
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Charles E. Leiserson, Clifford Stein, Ronald L. Rivest, Thomas H. Cormen
Introduction to the Theory of Computation
Matlab: A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving
MyProgrammingLab with Pearson eText -- Instant Access -- for The Practice of Computing using Python
Richard Enbody, William F Punch
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