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Chapter 2 From Natural Philosophy to Darwin
Terms in this set (29)
To study nature (i.e., the material world) as part of a scientific enterprise, one can only make use of methods that are open to human senses. (Sight, Smell, Taste, Hearing, and Touch)
theology or knowledge of God based on observed facts and experience apart from divine revelation.
Carl von Linne
began systematically classifying living things. Binomial Nomenclature
A system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
First to recognize fossils were remains of organisms
Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon
Said animals shared common ancestors and that Earth is much older than 6000 years old
The great chain of being
a system in which species were positioned in a system of hierarchy of complexity or "perfection"
The science of describing, naming, and classifying species of living or fossil organisms
the branch of geology concerned with the order and relative position of strata and their relationship to the geological time scale.
(1769-1832) Largely developed paleontology, the study of fossils. Advocated catastrophism.
"Father of Modern Geology"
Principle of Uniformitarianism. Opened the door to recognized deep time.
opened the argument for Gradualism vs Catastrophism
principle of faunal succession. first geological map
proved living things can only come from living things with the fly and maggot expeiriment.
considered how organisms could evolve through mechanisms such as competition
"The Temple of Nature" 1803
"Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" Published anonymous before Darwin but did not tie to evidence.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
1. British biologist who wrote "On the Origin of Species"
2. Challenged the idea of special creation by proposing a revolutionary theory of biological evolution
3. Concluded that every living plant and animal takes a part in a constant "struggle for existence" in which only the "fittest" survive
4. Argued that the fittest are determined by a process of natural selection
Captain of the HMS Beagle whom Darwin was brought on as a dinner companion for him. Was a meteorologist. Attained rank of Vice Admiral. Committed suicide
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Popularized idea that earth changes gradually
Alfred Russel Wallace
British naturalist who developed a hypothesis of natural selection similar to Darwin's
a revision of Darwin's original theory of evolution to include modern genetics
A comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin's ideas, focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution.
extended evolutionary synthesis
The view of evolution that accepts the existence of not just genetically based but also non-genetically based processes of evolution: developmental bias, plasticity, niche construction, and extra-genetic inheritance
Darwin's wife who advised him to publish his work before someone else did even though she didn't completely agree with Darwin's thinking
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