41 terms

Unit 5: Genetics and Biotechnology

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

allele
one of a number of different forms of a gene
biotechnology
process of manipulating organisms, cells, or molecules, to produce specific products
characteristic
a distinguishing quality, trait or feature of an individual, thing, disorder, etc.
clone
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
codominant
the state in which two genetic traits are fully expressed and neither dominates
dihybrid
a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes.
dominance
a characteristic in which an allele that expresses its phenotype even in the presence of a recessive allele
ethics
the principles of right and wrong that guide an individual in making decisions
F1 generation
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from the parent to offspring
genetics
the branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited traits among similar or related organisms.
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
hybrid
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
inherited trait
a characteristic passed on from a parent to an offspring like eye or fur color
law of independent assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate from one another during gamete formation
law of Segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
monohybrid
a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
offspring
product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents
P generation
parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
pedigree
chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
polygenic inheritance
occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait
probability
likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett Square
diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
purebred
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
ratio
the quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value contains or is contained within the other.
recessive
trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
sex-linked
gene located on the X or Y chromosome
Gregor Mendel
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
hemophilia
An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.
gel electrophoresis
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
endonuclease
an enzyme that cleaves a polynucleotide chain by separating nucleotides other than the two end ones.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
recombinant DNA
DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms.
multiple alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
blood types
classified according to the presence, or absence, of certain antigens (proteins); four major blood types are A, AB, B, and O
F2 generation
the F2 generation is the result of a cross between two F1 individuals (from F1 generation)