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APES Final Exam Review: Bacon, Dean, Helms, Hoy, and Pulliam
Terms in this set (85)
What is the difference between resources being economically depleted and ecologically depleted?
Resources that are economically depleted can no longer be collected for a profit. Resources that are ecologically depleted means that there is no longer any of that resource so it cannot be collected anymore.
In which layer of the Earth are natural resources found?
They are found in the crust.
Describe the different types of surface mining and subsurface mining. How does each affect the environment?
surface mining: strip mining, open pit mining, mountaintop removal, area strip mining and counter strop mining
Subsurface mining: Room & pillar, long wall mining, solution mining
-acid mine drainage and water contamination
What are the risks associated with acid mine drainage?
it effects aquatic wildlife. it is the main pollutant of surface water.
What is the drawback to the Mining Law of 1872?
land used for other purposes, government lost money because land was so cheap
Which fossil fuels are the cleanest and dirtiest in terms of pollution/environmental damage?
natural gas is the cleanest, coal is the dirtiest
Which materials are most difficult to recycle?
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each of the fossil fuels.
*pros- affordable, no lag time, emissions that are released are limited, can be converted to different forms of fuel
*cons- the mining of coal destroys habitats, the mining process leaves behind environmental toxins, it produces radiation
*pros- produces less soot, abundant supply, infrastructure in place, cheaper
*cons- highly flammable, greenhouse gas emissions, non sustainable, not easy to use
*pros- easily accessible and economical, sustainable, steady and reliable, easy to produce
*cons- non renewable, environmental pollutant, oil leaks can occur, possible emission of harmful chemicals
*pros- can be extracted easily, high density, easily transported, extracted at a low cost
*cons- limited resources, contributes to pollution, produces hazardous substances, non renewable
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each of the major renewable resources and biomass. (wind, geothermal, solar, etc.)
*pros- it can reduce or eliminate your electric bills, improves the value of your home
*cons- solar panels don't work for every type of roof, if electricity costs are low then solar savings is too
*pros- it is a green energy source and does not cause pollution, potential of wind power is large, wind power is renewable and we can not run out of it
*cons- wind fluctuates, the manufacturing and installation on wind turbines requires heavy upfront investments, wind turbines can be a threat to wildlife
*pros- uses a free resource, efficient, does not produce pollution, renewable, can help improve environmental quality
*cons- can destroy natural habitats, emits carbon dioxide and methane, can cause flooding, risks extinction of species
*pros- does not cause much pollution, renewable, great for heating and cooling, available everywhere
*cons- minor environmental issues, power plants can sometimes cause earthquakes, heavy upfront costs, very location specific
*pros- renewable, dependency on fossil fuels is reduced, carbon neutral, helps reduce waste
*cons- not totally clean when burned, can lead to deforestation, inefficient, expensive, requires a lot of space
How are passive and active solar techniques different? What are solar panels made from?
active solar systems use hot water pumps or fans to pump fluids. They can be used to increase the effectiveness of your solar system. Passive solar systems depend on the design, construction and building of your house. They use the suns energy for heating and cooling purposes. solar panels are made from wither mono crystalline or polycrystalline silicon housed in a metal panel frame with a glass casing.
What is the definition of energy? Net energy? High and low throughput economies?
energy is the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity. net energy gain is a concept used in energy economics that refers to the difference between the energy expanded to harvest an energy source and the amount of energy gained from that harvest. Low throughput economy is economy based on working with nature by recycling and reusing discarded matter. High throughput economy is an economic system in most advanced industrialized countries, in which ever increasing economic growth is sustained by maximizing the rate at which matter and energy resources are used.
How does energy efficiency impact the overall supply of energy resources? Benefits of investing in this technology?
energy efficiency can reduce the demand for and supply of energy generated from fossil fuels. It increases amount of electricity generated from clean and efficient sources.
What is the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission? Which is the basis of nuclear energy production?
nuclear fusion is the process where two light nuclei combine together releasing vast amounts of energy. Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy, unstable nucleus into two lighter nuclei. Nuclear fission produces heat which is used to heat water and make steam. Therefore, nuclear fission is the basis of nuclear energy production.
How do government subsidies and artificially low prices affect fossil fuel use?
fossil fuel subsidies increase emissions and exacerbate climate change
What is the purpose/benefit of slash and burn cultivation?
slash and burn cultivation is a widely used method of growing food in which wild or forested land is clear cut and ant remaining vegetation burned.
What is shifting cultivation? Alley cropping? Polyculture?
shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture, in which an area of ground is cleared of vegetation and cultivated for a few years and then abandoned for a new area until its fertility has been naturally restored. Alley cropping is planting rows of trees at wide spacings with a companion crop grown in the alleyways between the rows. Polyculture is the simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of animals.
What are the pros and cons associated with monocultures?
-easy and simple
-underutilized soil nutrients
-limited food choices
What is the CCC and what are they responsible for?
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program that gave millions of young men employment on environmental projects during the Great Depression. Considered by many to be one of the most successful of Roosevelt's New Deal programs, the CCC planted more than three billion trees and constructed trails and shelters in more than 800 parks nationwide during its nine years of existence. The CCC helped to shape the modern national and state park systems we enjoy today.
What are the major types of soil and which is best for most agricultural crops? Which has the greatest water holding capacity? Lowest?
Medium textured soils (fine sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam) have the highest water holding capacity, while coarse soils (sand, loamy sand and sandy loam) have the lowest water holding capacity. Medium textured soils with a blend of silt, clay and sand particles and good aggregation provide a large number of pores that hold water against gravity. Coarse soils are dominated by sand and have very little silt and clay. Because of this, there is little aggregation and few small pores that will hold water against gravity. Fine textured clayey soils have a lot of small pores that hold much water against gravity. Water is held very tightly in the small pores making it difficult for plants to adsorb it.
What force causes the greatest amount of erosion on the planet?
Erosion eats away Earth's surface. There are four main agents of erosion. Moving water, wind, gravity, and ice wear away or break up rocks, sediments, and soil from the land's surface. When these materials are deposited or dropped in new places, it is called deposition.
Describe the different agricultural practices and the stage of industrialization is associated with each?
Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. The methods of industrial agriculture are technoscientific, economic, and political. They include innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade.
What are the pros and cons of genetically engineering crops?
Pros: resistance to insects, tolerance to herbicides, tolerance for heat, cold, or drought and crop yield
Cons: Allergies, Antibiotic resistance, and cancer
What are the characteristics of sustainable agriculture and its purpose?
Sustainable agricultural practices are intended to protect the environment, expand the Earth's natural resource base, and maintain and improve soil fertility. Based on a multi-pronged goal, sustainable agriculture seeks to: Increase profitable farm income. Promote environmental stewardship.
What are the pros and cons of pesticide use?
When pesticides are used, there can be less crop loss to bugs. This yields more food, more profit for the farmer, and less waste of land, time, farm equipment use and water for irrigation.
Water that contains pesticides runs off of agricultural areas and contaminates groundwater and the ocean affecting the health of humans and the environment. There can also be health concerns to humans directly from the consumption of pesticide-containing produce and especially for the people spraying the crops with pesticides.
The pros are that using pesticides is a rapid, relatively easy response to an infestation of pests on an agricultural crop, and they allow greater crop yield on less land. The cons are that pesticides can injure or kill organisms other than their intended targets, and they cause bioaccumulation.
What is the difference between conventional and conservation tillage?
Conservation tillage decreases soil erosion, leaching of fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides into the ground water. Conservation and conventional tillage greatly affect bulk density and soil aggregation. Conservation tillage improves activity of earth worm and other soil micro flora. Some studies showed that soil microbial activity was higher with conventional tillage due to better aeration. Numerous studies conducted in temperate climate zones showed that no-tillage resulted in acidification of surface layer when continued for several years compared to conventional tillage. Conservation tillage increases soil infiltration rate and reduces soil evaporation there by it increases soil water storage, while other studies stated that soil crusting at a slower rate on no-till surface than on the tilled reducing the infiltration rate. Due to higher residue in surface soil in conservation tillage, it will improve soil organic carbon content, while other work reported a decrease in soil organic matter compared to ploughed soil down to a depth of 10 cm after 3 years of study. Zero tillage gives smothering effect to weeds but some studies shows that, higher density of perennial grass weeds in reduced tillage systems compared to conventional tillage. Several studies have shown that crops grown under zero tillage have yielded as similar as or better than those grown under conventional tillage, while some workers revealed conventional tillage increased the yield of crops and other scientist reported there no yield difference between any tillage system. 1. The objective of seed bed preparation is to create stress free soil environment (water, mechanical impedance, aeration, nutrition etc.) to achieve optimum germination, proper seedling establishment and adequate plant population. Tillage is needed to make proper seed-bed, which varies with the crop to follow and largely depends upon soil types, nature of preceding crop and residue management systems. Seedling emergence is critical for better establishment of crop. Hence, it is important to ensure an adequate seed and soil contact to facilitate water movement into seed, which intern depends upon physical characters of seed bed, thus affect germination and plant stand (Bouaziz, 1987). Tillage helps in controlling weeds by burying weed seeds and emerged seedlings leaving a rough surface to hinder weed seed germination, expose underground parts of perennial weeds leading to their desiccation (Subbulakshmi, 2007).
What are the major biomes and there plants and animals?
Coniferous Forest: These woodlands are comprised principally of cone-bearing trees, for example, spruce, fir, and hemlock, which are appropriate for the cool atmosphere. Animals like ermine, the moose, the red fox, the snowshoe rabbit thrive in this biome. The cold weather makes it very difficult for plants and animals to survive.
Deciduous Forest: The trees in Deciduous forests lose their leaves during winter and the color of leaves change during autumn. The most common types of trees are knows as ash, oak, lime, beech, birch and northern arrowwood. As soil is fertile, some of the great agricultural regions are found in this biome.
Desert: There are two main types of desert that you can find: hot and dry, and freezing and cold. The absence of water and extraordinary heat or cold makes this biome a poor choice for most life structures. A large portion of the plants you'll see in the desert are types of cacti. The Great Basin, the Mojave, the Sonoran, and the Chihuahuan are the four major deserts in North America.
Grasslands: There are 2 main types of grasslands: Tropical grasslands called Savannas and Temperate Grasslands. Savannas cover more than one third area of Africa and large areas of Australia, South America, and India. Savannas are found in hot and warm climates. Soil in Savannas are thin layered, do not hold water and contain nutrients from dead plants. Temperate grasslands can be found in South Africa, Argentina, and some plains in Central North America. Temperate in temperate grasslands vary from summer to winter with high temperatures in summer and freezing temperatures in winter.
Mountains: Mountains are normally found in gatherings called ranges or chains, even though you can find ones that stand by themselves in certain areas. A mountain biome is exceptionally cool and breezy. The higher the mountain, the colder and windier the biome is. There is additionally less oxygen at high heights, which can make it difficult for some people and creatures to reside there. Animals in this biome like mountain goat, yak, sheep are excellent climbers and can move freely on rocky landscape.
rainforests: Tropical rainforests are found in Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, and on a significant number of the Pacific islands. They are frequently found along the equator. A large portion of the world's tropical rainforests are in the South American nation Brazil. There are different sorts of rainforests as far and wide as possible, as well. For instance, northern Australia has a "dry rainforest" that encounters a dry season every year, and the blustery Pacific Northwest in the United States has a "mild rainforest" that is made up of evergreen trees. Tropical rainforests get no less than 70 inches of rain every year and have a greater number of types of plants and creatures than any other biome.
Each of the three largest rainforests have different species of plants and animals. Around 1/4th of the medicines come from rainforests. Curare which is used to relax muscles during surgery comes from a tropical vine. Quinine, which is used to treat malaria comes from the cinchona tree. Rainforests are believed to have 1400 species of tropical plants that can cure cancer.
Arctic Tundra: The tundra has winter and summer as main seasons. Springs are short and fall between summer and winter. It is one of the coldest and driest biomes. The soil is known as permafrost, the permanent frozen layer of earth. The tundra biome has animals like mountain goats, marmots, beetles and butterflies.
Which two characteristics are most important when determining a biome ?
Temperature and Precipitation
In terms of cause and effect, what would a time delay look like?
In a complex system, the period of time between the input of feedback stimulus and the system's response to it.
What is the rain shadow effect and how does it impact a mountain biome?
Once the air passes over the mountain range, it moves down the other side, warms, and dries out. This dry air produces a rain shadow. Land in a rain shadow is typically very dry and receives much less precipitation and cloud cover than land on the windward side of the mountain range
Which biomes have the highest net primary productivity?
As you might expect, the terrestrial biome with the highest level of primary productivity is the tropical rainforest biome with around 2,200 grams of biomass per square meter per year. The tropical seasonal forests also fall in the range of having high primary productivity.
What is the greatest limiting factor in a tropical rainforest ?
Simply put, the rainforest ecosystem has very few limitations, and the most prominent among them are sunlight and soil. Sunlight is a limiting factor in rainforests may come as a surprise considering that the biome largely lies in tropical and temperate areas and is full of lush-green vegetation.
Why are forests threatened? what role do forests play in the carbon- oxygen cycle?
Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen through a process called photosynthesis. Just about all living organisms on earth need oxygen to breathe, and forests play a key role in the complex global cycle of oxygen.
Describe the different types of forest fires and how each effects a forest.
There are three basic types of forest fires:
Crown fires burn trees up their entire length to the top. These are the most intense and dangerous wildland fires.
Surface fires burn only surface litter and duff. These are the easiest fires to put out and cause the least damage to the forest.
Ground fires (sometimes called underground or subsurface fires) occur in deep accumulations of humus, peat and similar dead vegetation that become dry enough to burn. These fires move very slowly, but can become difficult to fully put out, or suppress. Occasionally, especially during prolonged drought, such fires can smoulder all winter underground and then emerge at the surface again in spring.
Why are biomes like the tundra and desert more fragile and require more time to recover from environmental destruction?
Biomes like the tundra and desert have lower biodiversity, so frequent environmental disruption could completely destroy an entire ecosystem in that biome. The reduction of a population of one species due to environmental disruption could cause severe damage.
What challenges do organism in estuaries face? Coastal zones?
Estuaries face sewage discharge, runoff from rural areas and farms, dredging, overfishing, and pollution and toxic elements. Coastal zones face acidification, overfishing, sea level temperatures rising and heating, and habitat destruction
The zones of the ocean and highest productive and biodiversity.
Near the coasts are the coastal zones which are shallow and very diverse and productive. next to it is the eutrophic zone which is also diverse and shallow and since it covers a lot of the surface the sun allows it to have high production. below that is the bathyal zone which is less diverse and deeper, and below that is the abyssal zone.
What are the benefits of coastal wetlands? Estuaries? Mangrove forest?
Coastal wetlands protect the uplands and shores, can stop flooding, are ecosystems for many different species, and can improve water quality. Estuaries are known as the nurseries of the sea, and is the home to many species, provide food, protect shores against flooding and bring nutrients to areas near by. Mangrove forest are extremely productive ecosystems, protects shoreline, stabilizes sediments and helps stop erosion by its roots, provide food and shelter to animals, and filter pollution.
The rain shadow effect effects mountain ranges by?
The rain shadow effect makes mountains separate and makes one side moist and wet and the other dry. This is because clouds are pushed one direction but the mountain does not allow it to pass and that creates the dry side.
In what biome is biodiversity the highest?
tropical rain forests
What is the common limiting factor in aquatic environments? Terrestrial? For plants? Animals?
The common limiting factor for aquatic environments and plants are sunlight. Animals limiting factor is predators and food, the limiting factor for terrestrial is abiotic factors.
What type of organisms utilize chemosynthesis and where are they found?
Bacteria that live in hydrothermal vents, deep ocean, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho
How do non-native species affect food webs
One way invasive species could effect the flow of energy in a food chain or food web is by eating a predators prey, decreasing the predators population. They can rapidly reproduce, have the ability to live off of many different food types and sources, and have high tolerances.
What types of organisms are found at each of the trophic levels in a food web?
Producers and herbivores are found at the trophic levels of he food web.
What happens to most of the energy as it goes up the food chain?
Most of the energy is turned into either heat or lower qualities of energy. As each level goes up 90% of the energy is lost.
How does size and distance from the mainland affect biodiversity of islands?
When islands are smaller there is less biodiversity. Islands farther from the mainland typically have less species but less predators to kill prey.
Impact of eutrophication on lakes?
Eutrophication leads to the depletion of oxygen in lakes. It is caused by excessive plant and algae growth from runoff sewage from farms and rural areas. Creates dead zones and kills many organisms.
What are scavengers.., omnivores, carnivores, detritivores, decomposers, herbivores, autotrophs, and heterotrophs roles in the environment?
A scavenger is an organism that consumes mostly decaying biomass, such as meat or rotting plant matter. Autotrophs are called producers, because they produce their own food. Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores are consumers. Herbivores are primary consumers. Carnivores and omnivores are secondary consumers. Decomposers and detritivores consume plant and animal parts, as well as fecal matter. These organisms play an important role in all ecosystems by getting rid of decaying organic matter left behind by other organisms
What are the largest groups of organisms on the planet?
The largest groups are insects.
What roles do insects play in the environment? How do the benefit an ecosystem?
Insects decompose plant litter and help create top soil, the nutrient-rich layer of soil that helps plants grow. Also, ants and beetles, dig tunnels that provide channels for water.
What are the unique characteristics of k and r species? How do they react to environmental changes?
The production of numerous small offspring followed by exponential population growth is the defining characteristic of r-selected species. K-selected species usually have longer life spans and reproduce later in life. R- selected species are more like the die out during environment changes.
What is an upwelling? How does it affect coastal food webs?
The movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface. They can decrease the nutrients in water and kill many fish.
52. What is habitat fragmentation and how does it affect a forest? Environment?
It is the division of large habitats into smaller patches of lower total area. This can lead to ecosystem decay and loss of habitat.
53. What factors would cause a population to crash?
A population will crash if the population temporarily exceeds the long term carrying capacity in the environment.
54. Describe the different survivorship curves and organism examples (early, late and mid)
graph showing the number of individuals surviving to each age for a given species. Early survivorship curve example would be a human. We have high survival rate at young ages and our population number decrease with age. Middle survivorship would be a bird. They have an even amount of death and life at young and old age. A late curve example would be a fish population. The fish eggs have a low chance of maturing and getting older.
55. What are the pros and cons of urbanization and urban sprawl? How does it help/hurt an ecosystem?
Urbanization can help buy making life more affordable and easier for humans. However, it increases air pollution and loss of habitat and ecosystems for plants and animals. It will mainly hurt ecosystems.
56. What are the characteristics of an ecologically sustainable community?
In these communities the environment is kept in mind and appreciated. People protect the environment and minimize the damage and pollution to environment.
57. Define: 'critical population density' and 'minimum viable population' and what risks are associated with each?
Measurement of population per unit of area. Risks include over fishing and loss of habitat. Minimal viable population is the risk of extinction.
58. Define the following phrases in terms of fishing: optimal sustain yield and maximum sustained yield
Optimal sustain is the level of effort that maximizes the difference between total revenue and total cost. While Maximum sustain yield is the largest average catch that can be captured from environment to keep population at intermediate abundance and maximum replacement rate.
59. What is the "Tragedy of the Commons"? Examples:
Problem that occurs when individual exploit a shared resource to the extent that demand overwhelms supply and the resource becomes unavailable to some or all. One example would be overgrazing too many cattle on a field. Eventually there will not be enough resources for all the cows to eat and the land will become unusable.
60. What is the different types of natural selection and give examples of each.
Stabilizing selection: selective pressure select against the two extremes. Directional selection: trait shifts to one extreme. Disruptive selection: selection pressures act against the middle traits creating a two peaked curve.
61. Describe each of the different population cycles? (cyclic, irruptive, stable and explosive.) and examples
Cyclic population is when the populations rise and fall over a predictable period of time. irruptive population is when the population explodes and has subsequent sharp crashes or diebacks. Stable populations remain constant over time, they have age-specific fertility and constant mortality rates. Explosive is a sharp rise in population numbers, example: developing countries having a lot of babies.
62. What is the difference between top-down and bottom-up population control?
Top-down model is where the predators control the population. A bottom-up model is when the producers or food levels control the high levels in the line for food.
63. What is TFR and what has the greatest effect on a nation's TFR? When in history did the US see its highest TFR?
Total Fertility Rate. TFR rate was highest in US post WWII in the baby boom era. Lower child mortality rate and greater access to birth control have the greatest effect on TFR.
64. What are the stages of demographic transition?
Transition from high birth rates and death rates to low death and birth rates. Stage one is the pre-transition. Two is early transition. Three is late transition and four is post-transition.
65. Examples and the effects of geological isolation.
Populations of organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species. Usually occurs because or distance, barriers, events or separation. This is a common way for speciation to occur.
66. What is the difference between point and non-point sources of water pollution?
Point source pollution is when there is a identifiable source as to where the pollution is coming form. Non-point pollution is when there is no identifiable source. For example multiple farms over a large area.
67. What is the greatest threat to surface water?
Non-point source pollution and other man made threats.
68. Why are amphibians and lichens considered to be a good indicator species?
These are considered good indicator species because they absorb air as a source of nourishment and even breathe through their skin. They also live in both water and on land. Their skin can absorb toxic chemicals and radiation. If there are a lot of frogs in an ecosystem it shows the ecosystem is healthy.
69. What are the risks associated with landfills and groundwater?
Landfills can potentially pollute surface or groundwater, resulting in human consumption. Landfills can create leachate, which presents a major threat to the current and future quality of water.
70. In which part of the US is acid deposition most evident? What is the cause of acid deposition?
The region of the United States most harmed by acid rain is the East Coast, including the Appalachian Mountains and the Northeast. Acid deposition is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air. These substances can rise very high into the atmosphere, where they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants, known as acid rain.
71. What is hazardous waste? Types and disposal methods. CERCLA superfund and brownfield sites
Hazardous waste is waste that threatens human health or the environment because it is poisonous, dangerously chemically reactive, corrosive, or flammable. Types of hazardous waste include listed (Ex: F-list), characterized (Ex: ignitability), universal (Ex: batteries), mixed (Ex: radioactive-nuclear), and e-waste (Ex: electronics). CERCLA- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, known also as Superfund. It was passed in 1980 in response to some alarming and decidedly unacceptable hazardous waste practices and management going on in the 1970s. Brownfield sites- real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.
72. What is the difference between the greenhouse effect and global warming?
Global warming is the gradual increase in the overall temperature of Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
73. What gases are primarily responsible for global warming? Smog production, primary, and secondary pollutants
The gases that are primarily responsible for global warming are carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor
74. What are the potential effects of global warming?
Global warming is projected to have a number of effects on the oceans. Ongoing effects include rising sea levels due to thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and ice sheets, and warming of the ocean surface, leading to increased temperature stratification.
75. What are the greatest threats to stratospheric ozone? Chemicals and human activities
It is well established that anthropogenic chlorine-containing chemicals (chlorofluorocarbons) contribute to ozone layer depletion. For example, CFCs, once used in almost all refrigeration and air conditioning systems, eventually reach the stratosphere, where they are broken apart to release ozone-depleting chlorine atoms.
76. What is the difference between gray and brown smog, primary and secondary air pollutants, and common air pollutants
Gray smog (photochemical smog) of older industrial cities like London and New York derives from the massive combustion of coal and fuel oil in or near the city, releasing tons of ashes, soot, and sulfur compounds into the air. Brow smog comes from automobiles. Nitric oxide from automobile exhaust combines with oxygen in the air to form the brown gas nitrogen dioxide. Primary- harmful substances (CO2) released into the air through volcanoes, industry, combustion, etc. Secondary- interaction of a primary pollutant with another substance in the air forming new chemical compounds (Ex: ozone, which is formed when hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in the presence of sunlight; NO2, which is formed as NO combines with oxygen in the air; and acid rain, which is formed when sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides react with water). Common air pollutants are ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and lead.
77. Identify examples of particulate matter (SPM)
Refers to any mixture of solid particles or liquid droplets that remain suspended in the atmosphere for appreciable time periods. Examples of particulates are dust and salt particles, and water and sulphuric acid droplets.
78. What is a thermal inversion and how does it impact ground level pollution?
Occurs when a layer of warm air settles over a layer of cooler air that lies near the ground. The warm air holds down the cool air and prevents pollutants from rising and scattering. exacerbates pollution. An inversion can lead to pollution such as smog being trapped close to the ground, with possible adverse effects on health.
79. In which layer of the atmosphere is air pollution? Protective zone?
Air pollution is located in the tropospheric zone and the protective zone is located in the stratospheric zone.
80. Describe the different levels of succession (primary and secondary)
Primary- Primary succession occurs in essentially lifeless areas—regions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier. Secondary- follows a major disturbance, such as a fire or flood. It begins in environments that already possesses soil.
81. Describe the general features of the phosphorus, sulfur, carbon-oxygen, and nitrogen cycles
Phosphorus- Phosphorus moves in a cycle through rocks, water, soil and sediments and organisms. Over time, rain and weathering cause rocks to release phosphate ions and other minerals. Plants take up inorganic phosphate from the soil. Sulfur-release by thermal vents, release by volcanic activity, and transformation by bacteria. Carbon-oxygen- Plants use carbon dioxide in a process known as photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants give off oxygen as a waste product. Carbon dioxide moves from the air into the leaves of plants through tiny openings in the plant's leaves. Nitrogen- the series of processes by which nitrogen and its compounds are interconverted in the environment and in living organisms, including nitrogen fixation and decomposition.
82. How do aerobic and anaerobic decomposers factor into recycling nutrients and waste breakdown?
Microbial decomposers secrete enzymes into tissues to break down organic compounds then absorb them. Decomposers or saprotrophs recycle dead plants and animals into chemical nutrients like carbon and nitrogen that are released back into the soil, air and water.
83. How is a threshold dose response curve different from a linear dose response curve?
linear dose response model is where any dosage of a toxic chemical causes harm that increases with the dosage (a straight line graph) and a threshold dose response curve shows a threshold dosage must be reached before any detectable harmful effects occur, presumably because the body can repair the damage caused by low dosages of some substances (exponentially increasing graph)
84. What is an epidemiological study and what information is garnered from one?
Epidemiology is the study of diseases in populations of humans or other animals, specifically how, when and where they occur. The end result of any study design is to collect useful data that reveals relationships between causes and outcomes (including exposure and environmental factors) in certain diseases.
85. What is the difference between environmental risks, cultural risks, transmissible diseases, and risk analysis?
Environmental risks- actual or potential threat of adverse effects on living organisms and the environment by effluents, emissions, wastes, resource depletion, etc., arising out of an organization's activities. Cultural- (you can control-Ex: smoking, work conditions, poverty, crime, etc.) Transmissible disease- diseases which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes. Risk analysis- Identifying hazards, evaluating the nature and severity of risks (risk assessment), using this and other information to determine options and make decisions about reducing or eliminating risks (risk management), and communicating information about risks to decision makers and the public (risk communication).
Recommended textbook explanations
Environmental Science: Sustaining Your World
G. Tyler Miller, Scott E. Spoolman
Environmental Science Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
Karen Arms, Michael R. Heithaus
Environmental Science: Your World, Your Turn
Jay H. Withgott
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