107 terms

Psychology Midterm Review, Mrs Jezequel, Hawthorne christian academy

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Psysiology
Study of function
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
cognitive
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Scientific Method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Behaviorism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Introspection
examination of one's own thoughts and feelings
Reinforcement
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Sample
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole.
experimental group
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
Variable
A factor that can change in an experiment
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Ethics
the principles of right and wrong that guide an individual in making decisions
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
community psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
environmental psychology
the study of the relationship between behavior and the physical environment
forensic psychologist
psychologist who applies psychology to law and legal proceedings
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Psychobiology
the area of psychology that focuses on the biological foundations of behavior and mental processes
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
industrial-organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
Maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
maturation readiness
must be physiologically ready before a child can be taught something
addiction
A physiological or psychological dependence on a drug
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
the moro
startle reflex
Babinski reflex
Reflex in which a newborn fans out the toes when the sole of the foot is touched
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
grasping reflex
an infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Assimilation
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
Assimilation
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
accommodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
concrete operational
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
representational thought
the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind
seperation anxiety
the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
disorganized attachment
a type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return
Democratic or authoritative
- Parents direct child's behavior by setting rules & explaining reason for each rule setting
- Parents negatively reinforce deviations from the rules
Authoritarian(parents)
Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience.
permissive parenting
A parenting style characterized by the placement of few limits on the child's behavior.
establishment of limits
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Socialization
the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
role taking
children's play that involves assuming adult roles, thus enabling the child to experience different points of view
initiation rites
ceremonies or rituals in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
developmental tasks
events that need to happen in order for a person to continue growing toward becoming a healthy, mature adult
invulnerability
an illusion that breeds excessive optimism and risk taking
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Gender
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
stereotype
A generalized belief about a group of people
Conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Protoconversations
vocal interactions between mothers and infants that resemble the verbal exchanges of more mature conversations
intuitive
instinctive, untaught
clique
a small, exclusive group of people
attachment relationship
the close relationship that forms between infants and their caregivers
peer group
A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
cohort effect
effect observed in a sample of participants that results from individuals in the sample growing up at the same time
causes of death in later adulthood
cancer, heart attack, stroke
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
arranged marriage
marriage orchestrated by the families of the involved parties
Age-Thirty Crisis
Major transitional period in men's lives
Generativity
the desire, in middle age, to use one's accumulated wisdom to guide future generations
stagnation
a discontinuation of development and a desire to recapture the past
empty nest syndrome
alleged period of depression in mothers following the departure of their grown children from the home
Depression
A prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness
Stages of Death and Dying
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
objective tests
Personality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
personality test
assesses an individual's characteristics and identifies problems
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Meyer-Briggs Type Indicator
Inventory based on the ideas of Carl Jung and looks at for personality dimensions
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal populations
John B. Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
William James
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
Wilhelm Wundt
established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
B.F. Skinner
Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats
Gestalt Psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
M. Scott Peck
A contemporary psychiatrist who reintroduced the aspect of human spirituality and psychology with his classic book, The Road Less Traveled
Erich Fromm
his theory centered around the need to belong and the loneliness that freedom can bring
Mary Ainsworth
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
Jane Goodall
English zoologist noted for her studies of chimpanzees in the wild (born in 1934)
Anna Freud
1895-1982; Field: psychoanalysis; Contributions: focused on child psychoanalysis, fully developed defense mechanisms, emphasized importance of the ego and its constant struggle
Piaget
theorist that developed a series of stages in which an individual passes during cognitive development.
Gibson and Walk
jdevelopmental psychology; "visual cliff" studies with infants
John Bowlby
Attachment theory. Identified the characteristics of a child's attachment to his/her caregiver and the phases that a child experiences when separated from the caregiver.
Dr Timothy Keller
Timothy J. Keller is an American pastor, theologian, and Christian apologist. He is the founding pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City, New York
Dr. Margaret Mead
Margaret Mead was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelor's degree at Barnard College in New York City and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University.
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
psychologist who created the 5 stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
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