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Science Exam Study Guide 8th Grade
Terms in this set (98)
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
the energy produced by heat within the earth
a current caused by the rising of heated magma and sinking of cooled magma
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
the series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
rock formed when layers of sediments were pressed and cemented together
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, or pressure
movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces up warmer air over the sea
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
extremely deep areas in the ocean that are created by a subducting plate
Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves
Form of heat transfer where heat energy is directly transferred between molecules through molecular collisions or direct contact.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
process of cracking that occurs when the folded land cannot be bent any further
a condition of the atmosphere in which the pressure is below average
a condition of the atmosphere in which the pressure is above average
A form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two.
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
a magma's viscosity is directly related to its
a front where warm air moves over cold air and brings drizzly rain and then are followed by warm and clear weather
forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow
Molecules under high pressure are also under
Molecules under low pressure are also under
An instrument used to measure temperature
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
measures relative humidity
An instrument used to measure wind speed
What movement is down, out, clockwise?
What movement is in, up, counterclockwise?
The layers of the atmosphere are divided by
The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere
12 to 50 km, Ozone held here, absorbs UV radiation
3rd layer of the atmosphere
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
the lower part of the thermosphere, where electrically charged particles called ions are found
The outer layer of the thermosphere, extending outward into space.
wispy, high clouds
puffed, mid level clouds
clouds that look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton
A type of cumulus cloud that is tall and gray, and associated with thunderstorms.
The following happens ______________________ a thunderstorm. Temperature drops with cumulus or cumulonimbus clouds with a sharp drop in humidity
The following happens ___________________ a thunderstorm. Temperature cools with often cumulus clouds and lowering humidity
The side of a mountain range that faces the oncoming wind.
The side of a mountain range that faces away from the oncoming wind.
Which side of a mountain would you find a desert?
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents.
All of them
What are your favorite science teachers?
The continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
Water flowing off the land into bodies of surface water.
the acquisition or gradual gathering of water
a wide gentle slopping volcano made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions.
Does a shield volcano have high or low viscosity lava?
a volcano built primarily of pyroclastic material ejected from a single vent
Does a cinder cone have high or low viscosity magma?
A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials
a material found in magma that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon. It relates to a magma/lava's viscosity
Ring of Fire
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
other name for the Ring of Fire
Sea floor spreading
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
in tectonic plates, the site at which an oceanic plate is sliding under a continental plate.
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed
Large pieces of earths crust that move due to convection currents.
What causes the plates to move?
Plate edges are usually determined by the frequent occurance of what type of activity?
Earth's outermost layer.
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface
A break in the earth's crust
What reveals the cooling history of an igneous rock?
What is the deepest part of the ocean?
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
The amount of water vapor in the air
Adding salt to water increases the?
A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench
The portion of the earth's crust that primarily contains granite, is less dense than oceanic crust, and is 20-50 km thick
earths crust located under the ocean
A German scientist who proposed the theroy of continental drift
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
What hour do you have Science?
What day is the exam?
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