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12.3 - 1920s (Harlem Renaissance)
Terms in this set (25)
The nickname for a system of laws that enforced segregation. For example, African Americans had separate schools, rode in the backs of busses, could not drink from White drinking fountains, and could not eat in restaurants or stay in hotels, etc.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court case in which the court declared that racially segregated schools and other public facilities were constitutional establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine. It was overturned in the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954.
Booker T. Washington
African American educator in the late 1800s and early 1900s who led the Tuskegee Institute and argued that the best way for African Americans to advance their position in society was to learn useful skills rather than agitate for equality and justice. This was the Atlanta Compromise.
Famous collage for African Americans led by Booker T. Washington.
Belief that the best way for African Americans to advance their position in society was to learn useful skills rather than agitate for equality and justice. It was promoted by Booker T. Washington in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The name derives from a speech.
W. E. B. Du Bois
African American author, political leader and intellectual who led the Niagara Movement and published The Crisis. He believed that African Americans should reject the Atlanta Compromise and fight for equality and justice.
Movement in the African American community led by W. E. B. Du Bois to advocate for equality and racial justice. The NAACP was founded as part of this movement.
W. E. B. Du Bois's idea that 10% of African Americans had the skills, education, and motivation to be the leaders of the community.
Declaration of Principles
Statement published at the meeting of African American leaders in Niagara in 1905 calling for political, economic and social equality.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Organization dedicated to promoting African American rights through the justice system. It was established in 1909 as part of the Niagara Movement.
Journal published by W. E. B. Du Bois to promote the causes of African Americans.
Movement of nearly two million African Americans out of the South to cities of the North in the 19-teens, largely to escape segregation and take advantage of job opportunities during World War I.
Unofficial segregation in northern cities that occurred after the Great Migration in which realtors and banks refused to sell homes in certain neighborhoods to African American buyers.
Neighborhood in Manhattan in New York City that became the home of African American politics and culture in the 1920s.
Time period in the 1920s marked by an outpouring of cultural creativity, political action, and pride. It was centered in the Harlem neighborhood in New York City.
Idea that African Americans should assert themselves as members of American society, with literature, art, music and civil rights equal to all other people. It was popularized in the 1920s as part of the Harlem Renaissance and Niagara Movement. It was championed by W. E. B. Du Bois and contradicted Booker T. Washington's Albany Compromise.
Poet of the Harlem Renaissance. His most famous poem is "If We Must Die."
Zora Neale Hurston
Author of the Harlem Renaissance. Her novels celebrated the life of everyday African Americans.
James Weldon Johnson
Poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "Life Every Voice and Sing."
Author, philosopher, teacher and patron of the arts during of the Harlem Renaissance.
Most famous poet of the Harlem Renaissance.
Back to Africa Movement
Movement championed by Marcus Garvey in the 1920s that argued for African Americans to assert ethnic pride and move to Africa.
Jamaican-born entrepreneur and leader during the 1920s who led the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Organization founded by Marcus Garvey that encourage cooperation among all African people and people of African descent in the world. They also supported the independence movement in Jamaica.
Madam C. J. Walker
Female African American entrepreneur who was an important patron of the arts and leader during the Harlem Renaissance. She rose from poverty and made her fortune selling cosmetic products designed for African American women.
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