bruises and welts, burns, lacerations and abrasions, skeletal injuries, head injuries, and internal injuries; overly compliant and passive, aggressive and attention getting, developmental lag
bruises, lacerations, fractures, burns, head injuries, and internal injuries
extremely passive, accommodating, submissive, behaviors aimed at preserving a low profile and avoiding potential conflict with parents that might lead to abuse (hyper-vigilance); notably aggressive behaviors and marked overt hostility toward others, caused by rage and frustration at not getting needs met; developmental lags
early maturing girls: lower self-esteem, lower self-concept in terms of body image, less popular, tend to get into more trouble, associate with older friends, more likely to smoke, drink, date earlier, and get involved sexually at earlier ages, tend to experience more problems in school.
late maturing girls: experience some anxiety as they wait to mature, outperform other students
-the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Men: 14 yrs old Women: 12 or 13 yrs old
often involved in delinquency, sex, substance abuse, higher rates of emotional distress, social advantage, rated more positively by adults, considered more masculine, positive body image, likely to smoke, binge drink, break law, taller stronger
advantage in sports & positive body image but can be more hostile & aggressive
The Sex Information and Education Council of the United States is an organization dedicated to providing comprehensive, effective sex education; Four goals: information; attitudes, values, and insights; relationship and interpersonal skills; responsibility; research has determined that these programs delay first intercourse, reduce the frequency of intercourse, decrease the number of sexual partners, and increase contraceptive use; Seven characteristics: focus on decreasing specific risk taking behavior, based on social learning theory that emphasizes assuming responsibility for behavior, recognizing consequences, and teaching effective strategies to protect oneself, provide vital, practical, and accurate info about the risks of sexual behavior, the address how the media encourage young people to become involved in sexual behavior and help them think about how to respond, they provide examples of practice with communication, negotiation, and refusal skills, reinforce values that address the worth of postponing sexual activity and avoiding risky sexual behavior, and they employ teaching methods designed to involve the participants and induce them to personalize the information
The United States has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among Western industrialized nations
According to Marcia's categories of identity, people who fall into the(foreclosure)category never experience an identity crisis as such--they glide into adulthood without experiencing much turbulence or anxiety.
Identity achievement - people must undergo a period of intense decision making, they develop a personalized set of values and make their career decisions, most beneficial of the categories
Foreclosure - never experience an identity crisis, they glide into adulthood without experiencing much anxiety
Identity diffusion - suffer from a serious lack of decision and direction, they never resolve identity crisis, unable to make clear decisions concerning either their personal ideology or their career choice, characterized by low self-esteem and lack of resolution
Moratorium - people who experience intense anxiety during their identity crisis, yet have not make decisions regarding either personal values or career choice, experience a more continuous intense struggle to resolve these issues, instead of avoiding the issue they face it constantly
individual, group, and family therapy; nutrition education and monitoring by a dietitian, medical evaluation and monitoring by PCP,psychological evaluation possible psych medication and monitoring by psychiatrist, possible body image, equine therapy, music therapy, art therapist, or movement therapist can prove to be beneficial: multidisciplinary team focused approach
(1) resolution of the psychosocial and family dynamics that led to the development of the eating disorder (2) provision of medical services to correct any medical problems that resulted from starving, binging and purging, or being obese (3) reestablishment of normal weight and healthy eating behavior
closeness is the goal
1) Pre-affiliation - members are ambivalent about joining the group, interaction is guarded, members test out (through approach and avoidance behavior) whether or not they really want to belong to the group
2) Power and Control - emerges as the characteristics of the group begin to develop, patterns of communication within the group emerge, alliances and subgroups form, members begin to take on certain roles and responsibilities, norms and methods for handling group tasks develop, and membership questions arise, transitional stage with certain basic issues needing to be resolved
3) Intimacy - the likes and dislikes of intimate relationships are expressed, the group becomes more like a family, with sibling rivalry arising between members and the leader sometimes even being referred to as a parent, feelings about the group are more openly discussed
4) Differentiation - there is increased freedom for members to experiment with new and alternative behavior patterns, there is recognition of individual rights and needs and a high level of communication among members, the group is able to organize itself more effectively
5) Separation - the purposes of the group have been achieved and members have learned new behavioral patterns to enable them to move on to other social experiences, termination is not always easily accomplished, members are reluctant to move on to other social experiences