Ethics for the Computer Age Chapter 5
Terms in this set (24)
1. How is Whitepages.com able to produce a map to a person's home, given only that person's phone number?
Whitespages.com combines information contained in two databases. The first database ties phone numbers to addresses. The second database ties addresses to location on a map. By combining information in these databaes, Whitepages.com can show map location associated with a phone number,
2. Is privacy a negative right or a positive right?
Privacy is a negative riight because all i have to do to give you privacy is leave you alone.
3. What right is guaranteed by the Third Amendment to the U.S. Constitution?
refuse to let the goovernment quarter soldiers in their homes in peacetime.
4. What does it mean when we say that privacy is a prudential right?
This means that granting people this right provides a net benefit to society. Hence it is prudent for a society to choose to give its members some privacy.
5. Give three examples of ways in which an inhabitant of New York City in 2003 hasmore privacy than an inhabitant of New York City in 1903.
With the invention of air conditioning and television people spnd more time in their own partments than they did 100 years ago. Automodbilies and taxicabs give people more privacy than subway cars. Young adults are more likely to live away from thier parents than they were 100 years ago.
6. What is a public record?
Public record contains information reported to a government agency for the purpose of informing the public.
7. List five pieces of information about a person that are public records.
Legal name, date of birth, address, list of real estate owned, property tax records, political party, date moof marriage, date of death and date of divorce.
8. Provide an example (not already given in the book) of a situation where people must disclose personal information to a private organization in order to get something they want.
In order to get a job one may have to take a drug test. Poeple also submit urine and blood and show medical record sfor life insurance.
9. What objections were raised to Facebook's introduction of the Tag Suggestions feature?
The electronic privacy information center filed a complaint because facebook apparently used photos posted on its ite to develop its facial recognition technology, but it never received consent from facebook users to use their photos for this purpose.
10. Why does enhanced 911 service raise new concerns about privacy?
In order to implement this service, cell phone companies must install technology that enables them to track the positions of all active cell phones.
11. How do companies use loyalty cards to improve their sales?
By keeping track of layalty cards, a compnay can predict which other productss that consumer may be interested in purchasing and generate coupons for those products to stimulate a sale.
12. What privacy concerns have been raised with the increasing use of RFID tags?
If consumers cannot detach or disable RFID tags associated with items they have purchased, then information about their possessions may be collectd by other people with RFID scanners.
13. How are RFID tags being used to return pets to owners?
Once pets have this technology embedded somewhere on them..if the pets address and phone number are included in the tag then authorities can find the rightful owners.
14. What safety and security features are provided by the OnStar system?
This allows drivers who need help to contact an On star representative. if the vehicles airbag deploy, the system automatically communicates the location of the vehicle to an ONstar center. mOnstar can be used to help owners recover stolen vehicles. Onstar representtaives also have the power to disable the gas pedal on on star equipped vehicles.
15. What are the advantages of consolidating a patient's medical records into a single database accessible by many?What are the risks associated with this consolidation?
This can make it easier for multiple healthcare professionals to provide quality service to that patient. The risk of consolidation is that one who gains unpermetted access to that one file has access to all the patients medical information.
16. In what way do digital video recorders provide viewers with less privacy than videotape recorders
Digital video recorders report information about the viewing histort back to the subscription service providing the DVR.
17. How could "cookies" created by aWeb server affect a computer user's privacy?
if someone else should steal your "cookie" they can impersonate you.
18. What is data mining?
data mining means searching through multiple databases looking for patterns or relationships in the records.
19. What are we referring to when we talk about a secondary use of data?
This is when information captured for one purpose is put t another purpose.
20. What is collaborative filtering?Who uses it?
This is a way of helping an individual look through a large amount of choices and focus on the best ones. it used information about the preferences of a large amount of people to predict those items an individual is ore likely to like. On-line retailers and movie-retal sites use collaborative filteriing to make recommendations.
21. How are some political campaigns using data mining?
OSm campaigns uses it to enable them to target direct mailings and home visits to the people most likely to support their candidates.
22. Explain the difference between an opt-in policy and an opt-out policy.
Opt-in policy requires a consumer to explicitly give permission before an organization can share information it has collected about the individual. An opt-out policy allows an organnization to share inforation it has collected about a consumer unless the individual explicitly forbids it,
23. What about Facebook Beacon made it so unpopular with Facebook users?
Facebook's decision to make their Beacon System opt-out infuriated many Facebook users, who didnt even know beacon existed until it had revealed information they thought was private.
24. Give three examples of how data mining is being used on information collected from social networks
cell Phone companies are using data mining on social networks to identify "influencers" and offer them incentives to keep them loyal. Police are using data mining on sical networks to identify when big parties are happening and deploy officers accrodingly. Banks are using data minin g to evaluate riskiness of loans.