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Oral Cavity Pathology SA GI
Terms in this set (36)
(harelip, primary cleft palate)-incomplete fusion of nasofrontal processes with maxillary processes-unilateral/bilateral -superficial (lips)/deep (nostrils)
incomplete fusion of the secondary palate (palatine shelves)-problem nursing, aspiration pneumonia-Heritable - Boxers, Siamese and Abyssinian-Toxins (plants and therapeutic agents)»cats - griseofulvin (antifungal)
short maxilla - bulldog face. Many species.
short mandibles - parrot mouth. Many species.
absence of lower jaw
Epulis (singular) or epulides (plural)
a spongy looking growth that occurs along the gum line of a dog's mouth.
Three lesions account for ~ 90% of biopsies
Peripheral odontogenic fibroma
Acanthomatous ameloblastoma-Focal fibrous hyperplasia
Peripheral odontogenic fibroma
Often locally invasive, invade bone (radiograph-please)
Focal fibrous hyperplasia
Calicivirus in cats-In addition to stomatitis, may cause paw pad, respiratory, and conjunctival lesions
Nonviral Stomatitis w/ Vesicles
Pemphigus vulgaris - autoimmune disease.-Autoantibodies to desmosomal proteins in squamous epithelium. Causes damage to epithelium, cleft formation in epithelium, ulceration.-Oral mucosa, epithelium at mucocutaneous junctions and in the skin.
Feline ulcerative stomatitis and glossitis
chronic inflammation and ulceration of the oral tissues in older cats. Cause unknown.
Feline plasma cell gingivitis-pharyngitis
erythematous, proliferative lesions on the glossopalatine arches. Large numbers of plasma cells/lymphocytes. Cause unknown.
Oral eosinophilic granuloma
Cats- part of eosinophilic granuloma complex - includes 2 other conditions, eosinophilic plaque and linear granuloma (that primarily affect skin not oral tissue)-A.k.a. lick granuloma, rodent ulcer.
Chronic ulcerative lesion.
Primarily a disease of cats but sometimes dogs (Siberian huskies).
Chronic Ulcerative Paradental Stomatitis
A.K.A. Contact Mucositis with UlcerationuOral inflammation and ulceration secondary to dental plaqueuCan lead to secondary ulceration (very painful)uOlder dogs primarilyuMaltese, Cavalier King Charles spanielsuCan contribute to bone resorption and tooth loss
Erosive and Ulcerative Stomatitis
Uremia - secondary to chronic renal disease. uMultiple factors implicated-Bacterial urease breaks down salivary levels urea to ammonia leading to tissue damage and ulceration.-Uremia causes microvascular injury that leads to localized tissue hypoxia
Candida albicans - yeast-Overgrowth of common oral inhabitant-Secondary disease. Follows debility, immunocompromise, long-term antibiotic therapy, diabetes mellitus-Grayish pseudomembrane that scrapes off easily-Tongue and esophagus
Overgrowth of gingival tissuesuMiddle age to old dogsuBrachycephalic breeds - boxersuUsually not a problem but in severe cases can interfere with eating. Teeth may contact hyperplastic gingiva causing bleedinguSurgically remove in severe casesuMust distinguish from epulis
Oral papillomas (warts)
papillomavirus-lips, tongue, gingiva-spontaneous regression usually-immunocompromised dogs sometime severely affected.
In dogs, the 3 common types of Oral Neoplasms
Squamous cell carcinoma*
Squamous cell carcinoma in dogs
May occur anywhere in oral cavity but gingiva and tonsil sites most common (tonsil lesions commonly unilateral)-Tongue infrequent as primary lesion-Non-tonsillar lesions are locally invasive- bone invasion is detected in ~70% of cases at time of diagnosis-Metastasis of gingival lesions occurs infrequently but metastasis for tonsillar lesions occurs commonly
Oral NeoplasmsuSquamous cell carcinoma in cats
common type of oral neoplasm (60% of all oral neoplasms.-Most common sites include mandibular, maxillary, and sublingual.-Considered highly invasive but having low likelihood of metastasis to regional lymph node and unlikely to metastasize to distant sites.
Oral Fibrosarcoma in cats
Fibrosarcomas account for approximately 15% of the oral neoplasms in cats.uIn cats, gingiva, palate, lip, pharynx, and tongue locations most commonly.uAlthough locally invasive, metastasis is rare in cats.
The most common oral neoplasm in dogs (up to 40% in some studies)-Very rare (<1% of oral neoplasms in cats)-Pigmented to non-pigmented-Usually very aggressive, frequently metastasize to regional nodes and the lungs
Oral Plasma Cell Tumor
Also known as plasmacytomauCan be found anywhere in the oral cavityuAggressive in histologic appearance (high mitotic index, bizarre nuclei, etc) but often do not behave aggressively. (Rarely locally invasive, and don't metastasize.)
excess salivation»oral irritation, certain poisons
reduced or no salivation»difficult chewing and swallowing and increased gum and tooth disease
Fibrosarcomas account for approximately 20% of the oral neoplasms in dogs uIn dogs, gingiva, palate, lip/cheek locations most commonlyuIn dogs locally invasive- bone invasion is detected in ~60-90% of cases at time of diagnosis, with regional lymph node in 20% and distant metastasis in 10%
Sialoliths (salivary calculi) -
hard, chalky, white to yellowish concretions of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Painful. Concentric rings on radiography.-occlude salivary ducts causing submucosal swellings under the tongue (sublingual salivary duct) and along the side of the head (parotic salivary duct)
inflammation of the salivary glands-rabies-distemper in dogs-vitamin A deficiency - metaplasia of epithelium lining ducts and ductules-sialodacryadenitis virus in rats-mumps (humans)
dilation of sublingual salivary duct
Salivary mucocele (Sialocele)
pseudocyst in subcutaneous and deeper tissues filled with saliva. Ruptured salivary duct.
Dogs and cats
-Primarily involves the mandibular salivary gland, typically unilateral
-Firm mass, painful and may impair eating
-Necrosis of salivary gland accompanied by inflammatory leukocyte infiltration and squamous metaplasia of ducts
-May be confused with neoplasm grossly and histologically
-Pathogenesis: Unknown (possibly trauma, infection, or hypersensitivity etiology)
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