History - Chapter 6 (Indus Valley)
Terms in this set (39)
A large land mass that is connected to the rest of a continent
A main river and all of the other rivers and streams that drain into it
a very strong wind that blows across the Indian Ocean and Southern Asia. During the winter the wind brings dry weather. During the summer it brings heavy rains.
a building used for storing grain
a fortress that overlooks and protects a city; any strong or commanding place
a religion native to India, featuring belief in many gods and reincarnation
In Hinduism, the ancient books of sacred songs on which much of its religious beliefs are based.
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
Highest caste (priests)
The Hindu warrior caste.
The third Hindu Caste, that of the three merchants, traders, farmers, and craftsmen.
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
"the untouchables" Had to do lowest tasks like cleaning the streets, etc. So ritually impure that standing in one's shadow was considered impure.
the religion of the Vedic age;
religion of Vedic India, based on priests and rituals, particularly sacrifices to the gods
A teacher or spiritual guide
Belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
A person's religious and moral duties
breaking the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism;
in Hindu belief, the ultimate goal of existence
to think about deeply and quietly, reflect upon; to calm or clear the mind
Buddhist state of perfect wisdom
a blissful, painless state; free from suffering
A place where religious people stay in seclusion, from the outside world, to pay and live the contemplative life of the basics.
one branch of Buddhism, focuses on the wisdom of the Buddha.
the other branch of Buddhism, focuses on the Buddha's compassion.
How are the Vedas a reliable source of information on the Aryan peoples?
The Vedas are the main source historians have about religion and culture. They describe religion, daily life, and culture and explain the varna castes.
How are the Vedas not a reliable source of information on the Aryan peoples?
The Vedas were passed down by word of mouth for many centuries so may not be entirely accurate. They also could contain some bias (showing Aryans only in a positive way and neglecting negative views others may have had about them)
In what ways were the cities of the Indus Valley civilization similar to modern cities?
Cities were well planned. They had sewer systems and streets in a grid pattern.
In what ways were the cities of the Indus Valley civilization different from modern cities?
Indus Valley cities had walls to fortify the city. Modern cities lack this feature. Modern cities have higher populations, complicated public transportation, and consume large amounts of energy.
Why did the Buddha call his teachings the Middle Way?
These teachings did not require wealth or education nor did they require complete poverty to reach enlightenment.
What role did monasteries and missionaries play in the spread of Buddhism?
Monasteries became places where Buddhists could study and meditate. Missionaries carried the teachings of Buddhism throughout Asia and to the rest of the world
How are enlightenment and nirvana related?
Both are goals of Buddhists who follow the Eightfold Path. Some Buddhists believe that achieving nirvana automatically brings enlightenment, but some believe that enlightenment MAY follow nirvana
Why do Buddhists believe that the final 3 steps on the Eightfold Path are necessary?
These steps end suffering and desire
What caused Siddhartha Gautama to seek enlightenment?
After years of living a life of wealth with no happiness, he met a wandering holy man who had happiness without wealth. He wanted to find that happiness
Why did Hinduism appeal to followers of Brahmanism and other faiths?
Hinduism is flexible to accept worship of many gods as forms of Brahman. It also does not require regular attendance at religious services
What is the difference between the Upanishads and the Vedas?
While only Brahmins could interpret the Vedas, people from any caste were allowed to study the Upanishads (so those became more popular)
What has been the cultural impact of Hinduism?
Especially in India, where there are the greatest number of followers; great contributions to literature, art, music, and dance
Major religion in India
a popular religion in Asian countries (China, Koreas, Japan)
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