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Mid Unit Quiz on Cell Division
Terms in this set (55)
information overload and exchanging materials
What are the 2 reasons a cell divides?
as a cell increases in size, it doesn't make extra copies of its DNA; cell size is limited by its DNA, if the cell gets too big the DNA would no longer be able to serve the needs of the cell
materials enter and exit a cell through the cell membrane, so if the volume increases faster than the surface area, then it's harder for the cell to exchange those materials
a cells surface area is equal to the total are of its ____ _________
2 functions of the cell membrane
protects/supports cell, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
the goal of the cell is to have a large ratio of surface area to volume. But, if the volume is bigger than the surface area, the cell membrane can't function
how does the ratio of surface area to volume affect cell division?
surface area; volume
as cells grow, the ______ ____ does not increase as fast as the ______ increases.
lots of traffic=cell division
a little traffic=no cell division
How does traffic through the cell membrane influence cell division?
process in which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
the parent cell forms these after cell division
What must occur before the cell divides?
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from parent to offspring(1 DNA strand contains 1000's of these)
the production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process
process of reproduction involving a single parent
what organisms engage in asexual reproduction?
the two cells that result from asexual reproduction are genetically _______ to the parent cell
type of reproduction in which cells from 2 parents write to form the first cell of a new organism
are the organism that result from sexual reproduction identical to or different from the parent cell?
threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next; structures that contain the genetic info that is passed on from one generation of cells to the next
prokaryotic chromosome description
a single circular DNA molecule/ring; found in cytoplasm; folded into a space about 1/1000th smaller than a prokaryote's length
eukaryotic chromosome description
several free-floating in nucleus; 1000 times the amount of DNA as prokaryotes
prokaryotes genetic information is stored in their cytoplasm while eukaryotes is stored in their nucleus
what is different about where prokaryotes and eukaryotes store their genetic material?
proteins DNA coils around
Bead-like structures formed by histones and DNA
DNA(40%) and Protein(60%)
eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of what 2 materials?
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere; result from DNA replication
Are sister chromatids identical?
attaches sister chromatids; region of a chromosome where the 2 sister chromatids attach
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
What organisms perform binary fission?
repeating sequences of growth and division through which many kinds of eukaryotic cells pass
What are the 4 phases of the cell cycle?
G1, S, G2, M
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions in which the cell grows(eukaryotic cell spends most of its time in interphase especially G1)
rapid cell growth, a cell is in this par of the cell cycle for the longest period of time between cell divisions
S(DNA replication) phase
DNA is copied, chromosome replicated is now two sister chromatids joined at centromere
organelles replicate, microtubules are reassembled to form spindle apparatus that will move chromosomes, cell is now prepared for mitosis; shortest phase of interphase
the nucleus of a cell is divided into 2 nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes(mitosis is not cell division, it's part of cell division)
What occurs during the M(mitotic) phase of the cell cycle?
the cytoplasm divides; last step of cell division; after cytokinesis is complete, the cell will be in interphase again
What occurs during cytokinesis of the cell cycle?
What are the 4 phases of mitosis?
1st and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible; centrioles form and take up positions on opposite ends of the nucleus; spindle becomes visible; nuclear membrane breaks down and the nucleolus disappears
assist in moving the chromosomes to the equator(middle) of the cell
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
origin of centrioles
the phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell; the centromeres of all the sister chromatids line up
imaginary line that bisects each of the chromatids through the centromere
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell;
1. sister chromatids separate from each other at the centromere
2. spindle pulls each chromosome to opposite ends of the cell(towards centrioles)
3. the spindle is taken apart as the chromosomes move
4. each pole has 1 complete set of chromosomes
phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin; chromosomes uncoil, spindle fibers disappear, and nuclear membrane reforms
mitosis creates 2 identical nuclei
what is the result of mitosis?
cytoplasm of original cell is split in half; cell membrane grows to enclose both cells
-Animal cells: pinch in the membranes forming a cleavage furrow
-Plant cells: form a cell plate to split the cytoplasm
how is cytokinesis different between animal and plant cells?
divides the two cells that are undergoing cell division in plant cells
indentation that appears in a cell's surface when the cell is preparing to divide
two identical cells
what is the result of cytokinesis?
interphase at the G1 phase
following cytokinesis, the cell re-enters ________ __ ___ __ _____
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