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WVU Psych 101 Makeup Exam 1
Terms in this set (247)
When Jeremy first jumped into the pool, he almost jumped back out again because the water was so cold. After a while, the water temperature seemed almost like a warm bathtub. This is an example of:
The smallest intensity at which you are able to detect a stimulus refers to the _____ threshold.
Which of the following is the best synonym for sensation?
Being able to taste one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water is an example of _________.
Why do we adapt after prolonged exposure to a constant stimulus?
so that we detect potentially important changes in what's going on
The sight of a police car causes Wanda to touch her brake, slowing her speeding car. The police car has served as a
The function relating the value of a stimulus along some dimension to the just noticeable difference is known as __________'s law.
What is the term used when you try to determine the smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred?
_____ refers to a basic law of psychophysics: that a just noticeable difference is in constant proportion to the intensity of the original stimulus.
The term absolute threshold refers to the _______intensity of a stimulus that must be present for stimulus to be detected.
_______ is the study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli (sensations) and our psychological experience of them.
For an event to be considered a stimulus, it must
generate a response in a sense organ
Being able to detect the difference between two brands of Riesling wine is an example of _________
The ______ threshold refers to the smallest amount of stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another.
Dr. Smith examines the relationship between the physical properties of light, such as its amplitude and wavelength, and humans' perception of color. Which of the following terms MOST ACCURATELY describes Dr. Smith's field of study?
activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy
Rods are related to vision in _____ situations.
The cone is responsible for which type of sensation?
You are in the mall, looking at a blue sweater. How do you know it's blue?
Blue/yellow opponent-process cells increase their rate of firing and cones responsive to blue light in the retina begin responding.
Sometimes, after she has been staring at a computer screen for a long tme, Jane looks at a blank wall and sees an image of the screen that resembles a photographic negative. Which theory BEST accounts for this visual phenomenon?
After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots before your eyes. This phenomenon is best explained by:
According to one theory of color vision, colors are signaled in pairs by neurons that fire faster one color and slower to another color. The theory is known as the:
The blind spot is the place on the retina where
the optic nerve leaves the eye toward the brain.
The ______ is the protective covering of the eye that bends to focus an image on the back of the eye
_____ is / are important in peripheral vision because they are concentrated outside the fovea.
Cathy carefully walks down the aisle of the dark movie theatre. After hesitating a few times, she finds an empty seat. After a short while she can distinguish her friend Suzy sitting a few rows ahead of her. Cathy has experienced the phenomenon known as:
What is a shortcoming of the trichromatic theory?
It doesn't offer an adequate explanation of the perception of afterimages
opening in the center of the iris, size depends on amount of light in the environment
colored ring of muscle
bends the light so it can be properly focused on the retina
converts the electromagnetic energy of light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain. Contains photoreceptors (aka rods/cones)
highly sensitive to light
responsible for sharp focus & color perception (bright light)
IN the FOVEA
the very middle of the eye
Rods/cones > bipolar cells > gaglion cells > optic nerve > primary visual cortex
how messages gets from the eye to the brain
where the light separates into the left and right hemisphere
Substance P is a chemical that transmits messages about _____ to the brain.
At the state fair, Marcus loves to ride the "Hurricane" because it spins around very fast. However, when he gets off the ride, he feels dizzy and has an upset stomach. This response is due to stimulation of which sensory structure?
The function of the three tiny bones of the middle ear is to
amplify sound waves being relayed to the oval window
______ theory provides a good explanation for sensing low-frequency sounds.
The outer ears help humans primarily to detect
the source of sound
Damon hurt his arm when he bumped into the corner of a piece of furniture. He started to rub his arm around the contact spot and soon the pain seemed to lessen. Damon's experience regarding the lessening of the pain can be explained by:
gate control theory
The receptor cells for hearing are located in the:
______ theory provides a good explanation for sensing high-frequency sounds.
The olfactory cells are the:
receptors for the sense of smell
The perception associated with the amplitude of a sound wave is
When your head moves about in space, a response in the ______ is triggered.
Cindy is suffering from chronic pain. She has been instructed to use _______, a technique that trains the individual to control their heartbeat and respiration.
The structure of the ear that tranduces sound vibrations into nerve impluses is the
If you habitually listen to loud music through headphones, you are risking damage to the:
If two sounds vary in frequency they are perceived as differing in
A possible fifth taste that is present in foods with a meaty or savory flavor is called
a vibrating structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, containing sense receptors for sound
basilar membrane (covered with hair cells)
tiny motion sensing crystals in the semicircular canals
chemicals that non-humans secrete into the environment that produce a reaction in other members of the same species
involves receptors cells that responds to the tongue for basic stimulus qualities
highly sensitive to taste 2x as many receptors
relatively insensitive to taste
neurological phenomenon where one sense induces an experience in another sense
Gestalt psychology is a collection of laws that explain
how people organize their perceptions of the world
The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance - a skill known as depth perception - is largely a result of:
The overriding gestalt principle is _______, meaning that we tend to see it in the most basic manner that we can.
The term "perception" correctly applies to which of the following situations?
You must decide how far your car is from an object in the road.
Paintings or drawings that lead to ambiguous interpretations often invert or reverse the
figure and ground
Perceptual constancy refers to:
our perception of objects remaining stable despite the fact that sensory information changes.
Suppose that a visual illusion resulted entirely from fundamental biological factors. If this were true, then it would be expected that the
illusion would be universal to all humans and found in all cultures.
The Müller-Lyer illusion describes a case where a
line with arrow tips pointed inward appears to be longer than one with arrow tips pointed outward.
Top-down processing is illustrated by the importance of ________ in determining how we perceive objects.
Western-style elementary education is spreading to remote village areas around the world. It would be expected that the advance of education in rural Africa will _____ cultural differences in the perception of pictorial depth.
Filling in the missing parts is known as _______ in gestalt psychology
When we perceive the characteristics of external objects as remaining the same even though the retinal image has changed, __________ has been maintained
difference between the image of a scene received by the right eye and that received by the left eye can serve as a depth cue called:
If you take a photograph from the window of a moving car, you may notice that objects in the distance appear very clear, while nearby objects appear blurred. This is an example of the principle of:
Your aunt believes that she can perceive objects or events as they are happening. She tells of your uncle getting into a car accident which she saw happen even though it occurred three thousand miles away. Your aunt believes that she can perceive without involving the known senses. This is called:
Bottom-up processing is closest to the
feature analysis theory of perception
You and a friend are driving home on a college break; you're in the passenger seat. Bored, you gaze into the middle of an empty field. You notice that distant hilltops seem to move slowly in the same direction in which your car is moving; by contrast, mile markers on the side of the highway seem to whiz past you in the opposite direction. The difference in the apparent speed and direction of objects' motion serves as a depth cue called:
The Parthenon, a famous building of ancient Greece
was built with a slight distortion to compensate for a visual illusion
Your psychology professor calls on you during class. The first thought that goes through your mind is, "Why me?" This thought could be characterized as
Which of the following statements is true regarding extrasensory perception (ESP)?
Most psychologists believe that there is no reliable, scientific support for ESP.
Alexander blames his constant lateness in the morning on an inability to adjust his biological rhythms to a regular sleep-wake cycle. He is most likely talking about his
After practicing a new sport (lacrosse) in the evening, a child performs the skilled movements even better after getting up the next morning, thus supporting the _____ theory of dreams.
When people are deprived of REM sleep, they show which of the following behaviors when they can rest without disturbance?
more REM sleep
Which phenomenon most likely explains the fact that workers who work constantly changing time shifts are more prone to have accidents?
The harmful effects of extended sleep deprivation are most evident on
current feelings and performance.
In this stage of sleep, the individual is just entering sleep and the EEG closely resembles that of a person who is awake.
During the first half of the night, most sleepers will predominantly experience _____ sleep, whereas they will predominantly experience _____ sleep during the second half of the night.
stages 3 and 4; stages 1 and 2
REM sleep is associated with which feature of sleep?
Sleepers are least responsive to outside stimulation during _____ sleep.
Temporary sleep deprivation can lead to
slower reaction times, lower academic performance, and an inability to concentrate.
According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, dreams
reflect an individual's unconscious desires.
Research on sleep disorders has shown that one of the best ways to overcome insomnia is to
use your bed for sleep-related activities only, not for studying or eating.
When does the longest REM sleep cycle tend to occur?
in the hour or two before awakening
Which dream theory proposes that our brains make up stories out of the random neural activity that occurs while we sleep?
LSD, PCP, and marijuana are considered to be what form of psychoactive substance?
a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
the decrease in response to a stimuli that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest. Ex. the sound of the bell
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally bring about a response
a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned. Ex. meat
a response that is natural and needs no training. Ex salvation
a once neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus. Ex. sound of the bell
a basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears
the reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning
a process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response
learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences
the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again
satisfies some biological need and works naturally
a stimulus that becomes reinforcing because its association with a primary reinforcer
a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response
an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future
a stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again
weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus
the removal of something pleasant
increase in something
removing of a stimulus
different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior
schedules of reinforcement
reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs
continuous reinforcement schedule
reinforcing of a behavior some but not all the time
partial reinforcement schedule
a schedule by which reinforcement is given only after specific number of responses are made
fixed ratio variable
a schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number
variable ratio variable
a schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low
fixed interval schedule
a schedule by which the time between reinforcement varies around some average rather than being fixed
variable interval schedule
a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus
stimulus control training
the process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desired behaviors and decreasing the incident of unwanted ones
an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning
cognitive learning theory
learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it
learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model
Which branch of psychology studies the processes of sensing, perceiving, thinking, and learning?
The study of the effects of worry or anxiety on bodily symptoms is likely a focus of ______ psychology.
The main focus of clinical psychology is on which aspect of human behavior?
understanding and treating psychological disorders
Tavon wants to better resolve conflicts with his college roommate. When he asks for help, he will probably be referred to a:
Some psychologists study how the brain and other parts of the nervous system work together to influence behavior. Their focus is on:
Devid considers himself a cognitive psychologist. He is probably most interested in
how people process new information
Looking for the best ways to help people monitor and control their blood pressure through behavioral changes would be the concern of psychologists within which subfield?
_____ are physicians who specialize in psychological disorders
Most psychologists work in which types of settings?
colleges and universities or private practice
Although their interests are diverse, most psychologists share a common
interest in mental processes and behavior.
A myelin sheath
increases the velocity that the electrical impulses (carrying the messages) travel through the axon
The chemical substances that communicate information from one neuron to another are called
Terminal buttons are found at the ends of:
The branch-like fibers extending in clusters from the neuron's cell body are called:
The portion of the nerve cell from which information is passed to other nerve cells is called the
The "all-or-none law" refers to which fact about the nervous system?
Neurons are either "on" or "off"; there is no in-between.
The myelin sheath wraps around the
One class of neurotransmitters consisting of a family of chemical produced by the brain that are similar in structure to painkilling drugs is:
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has a major role in which behavioral function?
________ make it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire.
Biofeedback is a technique to control internal biological states by
monitoring biological responses so that adaptive tactics for changing those responses can be applied
The fact that your heart is beating reflects that the _____ division of the peripheral nervous system is operating.
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of:
brain and spinal cord
The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for which aspect of behavior?
taking care of the body's functions at rest
The two main parts of the nervous system are:
central and peripheral
______ neurons transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system.
______ relay information to the muscles from the brain.
A major function of the _____ division of the autonomic system is the fight-or-flight response in reaction to a threat.
The _______ division of the peripheral nervous system controls voluntary movements and communication between sense organs.
Elizabeth was walking in the woods when she came across what she thought was a deadly coral snake. Her flight-or-fight response reacted as her blood pressure and pulse increased. This is the _______ division of the autonomic system.
The part of the limbic system important for memory is:
Because you are currently breathing and your heart is beating, you can assume your _____ is working properly.
The ______ is a relay station in the brain handling information about the senses.
Scientists have learned that the brain continually reorganizes itself in process termed:
If a person's cerebellum were damaged in an accident, you would expect that person to have problems with
Which of the following best describes the functions of the hypothalamus?
regulates basic survival behaviors
In order to study the brain wave activity of different areas of the brain, researchers use which of the following techniques?
Among right-handed people, language abilities tend to be localized in the
Which of the following is true of the frontal lobe?
It is involved in voluntary muscle movement.
The body's ability to regulate balance in temperature and nutrition is related to the
The ______ is a relay station in the brain handling information about the senses.
The _____ jointly controls a variety of basic function including emotions and self-preservation.
A brain surgeon who needs to see which areas of the brain are functioning normally and those that are not would likely rely on
The reticular formation
responds to loud noises (like alarms)
From an evolutionary perspective, the newest part of the human brain is the
Higher mental functions that distinguish humans from other species are localized in the brain's
The brain's executive functioning is controlled by the
Mrs. Jones' doctor is concerned about her memory difficulties. He refers her to a neurologist who scans her brain. She is placed in a machine that measures the biochemical activity of her brain and displays the activity on a color monitor. This brain imaging technique is called:
positron emission tomography (PET)
It is difficult to study the specialized abilities of the left and right cerebral hemispheres in the brains of normal individuals because
the two hemispheres share information quickly and completely.
Retrieval cues are especially helpful when we try to recall information that is stored in _____ memory.
When asked to describe an examination room at his doctor's office, John seemed to do an accurate job. However, he included a framed medical degree on the wall that was not there. This is an example of:
According to _____ theory, our memory is best for information that we learn by getting a deep understanding of the information's meaning.
A stimulus that facilitates the recall of information from long-term memory is called a:
The controversy about repressed memories is
unlikely to be resolved soon due to problems in proving their existence
Which of the following has a significant effect on the accuracy of eyewitness memory?
age of the eyewitness, the presence of weapons, and the wording of questions that are asked about the crime
Which of these statements is correct about eyewitness identification of criminal suspects?
Eyewitnesses are prone to memory errors concerning the accident or crime they witnessed.
A researchers reads the following list of words to a group of participants: night, dream, bed, quiet, pillow, snore, nightmare, blanket, alarm. The researcher then asks the participants to write down as many words as they can recall from the list. Several write down the word "sleep," which was not on the list. This example BEST illustrates:
Children's recall of stressful personal memories
is prone to inaccuracy to a greater extent than is true for adults.
According to levels-of-processing theory, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests?
Irene, who attempts to relate her notes to information she already knows
Do drugs improve memory?
No research as shown that any commercial memory enhancers are effective.
Students should study and rehearse material past the initial point where they have mastered it. This is called:
Carlos believes that if he drinks a new memory-enhancing beverage, his performance on his psychology exams will improve. What advice would you give to Carlos?
Don't bother—memory-enhancing drugs do not improve memory.
Research on strategies for improving memory suggests that
less is more effective when taking notes in class
Two years after graduating from college, Allison is trying to remember what she learned in her class on analytical chemistry. She is experiencing memory ______, caused by nonuse.
According to _____ theory, memory failures occur because we do not have sufficient retrieval stimuli to access information that is stored in our long-term memory.
Following a car accident, William has little recall for information that he knew from before the accident. He does not recognize members of his family, and he does not remember where he works or what he enjoys doing. William is suffering from
An inability to store new information or to retrieve information from long-term memory (with no damage to working memory) is called
You have lost the keys to your car. You mentally walk through your day, thinking of each place you visited, and when you last used your car. You finally realized that you must have left them at the desk in the library when you checked out your book. Without your "mental walk" through your day your forgetting would best be characterized as:
Psychologists regard memory failures (i.e., forgetting) as a(n)
adaptive function that allows the brain to work efficiently
According to the _____ theory of forgetting, the learning of new information makes it more difficult to remember information that has already been acquired.
The Study of behavior and mental processes.
How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
How nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of one's genes.
How much our genes, and our environment influence our individual differences.
behavior genetics psychology
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
How we learn observable responses.
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Psychological factors in physical health
Dealing with normal life situations, adjustments
Psychological change over life span
Counseling in school settings
Learning and teaching
Brain and behavior
Basic lab focus
Human memory, perception, etc.
Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a technique for asserting the self reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has has an equal chance of inclusion
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable)
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
double blind procedure
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
the enduring behaviors, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
the post experimental explanation of a study, including it's purpose and any deceptions, to it's participants
the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.
A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list.
Middle Number, when all numbers are lined up from lowest to highest
the most frequently occurring score
Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data.
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