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Single Bond

a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

Structural Formula

Indicates the kind, number, arrangement and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule

Triple Bond

a covalent bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons


the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies

Formula Unit

the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established

Ionic Compound

composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal

Lattice Energy

the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions

Polyatomic Ion

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms


the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire


the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets


created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance

Hybrid Orbitals

orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom

Hydrogen Bonding

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

Intermolecular Forces

forces of attraction between molecules

London Dispersion Forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

Molecular Polarity

the uneven distribution of molecular charge

VSEPR Theory

states that repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible

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