Chapter 31 Terms
Terms in this set (49)
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
Eccentric economist who criticized the wealthy for "conspicuous consumption" and failure to serve real human needs. "The Theory of Leisure Class"
Jacob A. Riis
Danish immigrant reporter for the New York Sun who shocked middle class Americans with his account "How the Other Half Lives", a damning indictment of the poverty of the New York slums that profoundly influenced New York City police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt.
US novelist, wrote Sister Carrie about a young country girl who moves to the big city where she starts realizing her own US Dream by first becoming a mistress to men that she precieves as superior and later as a famous actress
Group that believed nation's resources and industries should be owned and operated by the government on behalf of the people
The "social gospel"
The Social Gospel was a group who combined their outrage for injustice with religion. They were mostly protestants. Advocates of the social gospel saw social darwinism as individuals helping society to become the "fittest". They inspired literature, and added the moral argument to progressivism.
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
launched a series of articles in McClure's (popular magazine) titled "The Shame of the Cities" which unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Thomas W. Lawson
made over $50 million on the Stock Market and wrote a series of articles in the magazine Everybody's from 1905-1906 titled "Frenzied Finance" that revealed how his accomplices practiced and worked the Stock Market.
David G. Phillips
Wrote a series in Cosmopolitan titled "The Treason of the Senate" which boldly charged that 75 of the 90 senators represented the railroads and trusts, not the people. His indictment impressed President Roosevelt. He continued his writing until he was killed in 1911.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
the act of removing an official by petition
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
Seventeenth Amendment (1913)
1913 constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators; take out corruption aspect
City manager system (Galveston, 1901)
Appointed expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs. It was designed to take the politics out of city administration. However it resulted in the control being further removed from the public.
Robert M. LaFollette
Three term governor of Wisconsin, then U.S. Senator in 1906, he was one of the earliest proponents of Progressive Reform.
A progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the republican govenor of California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over politics.
Charles Evans Hughes
A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election.
Women's club movement
gave a broad civic entry to middle-class women; literary clubs that educated women in "poem and prose" but eventually became a meeting hall for social issues and current events
Florence Kelly (National Consumer's League)
Active in the settlement house movement and led progressive labor reforms for women and children. State of Illinois first cheif factory inspector.
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
A landmark Supreme Court case in which crusading attorney (and future Supreme Court Justice) Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of limiting the hours of women workers. Coming on the heels of Lochner v. New York, it established a different standard for male and female workers.
Louis D. Brandeis
A lawyer and later justice of the Supreme Court who spoke and wrote widely (especially in Other People's Money ) about the "curse of bigness." He insisted that government must regulate competition in such a way as to ensure that large combinations did not emerge.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire (1911)
In 1911 the tragic fire killed 146 people, mostly women because the owner kept the stairway doors locked to prevent theft, following stricter building acts and factory codes, and worker insurance
Frances Willard and WCTU
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union which she build to become the largest organization of women in the world.
Laws that were passed which controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
Coal Strike (1902)
Strike by the United Coal Workers of America, threatening to shut down the winter coal supply. Theodore Roosevelt intervened federally, and resolved the dispute
Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
Issues patents for inventions and registers copyrights for creative works
Elkins Act (1903)
sponsored by President Theodore Roosevelt, provided for the regulation of interstate railroads. The act forbade rebates or other rate reductions to shipping companies. Railroads were not allowed to offer rates different from the published rates.
Hepburn Act (1906)
This Act tightened existing railroad regulation. Empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and to examine railroad's financial records.
independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Northern Securities Case (1904)
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
J. P. Morgan and James J. Hill
Together, they were involved in the Great Northern Railway. Morgan was a banker and Hill was a railroad tycoon.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Meat Inspection and Pure Food and Drug Acts (1906)
1906, authorized Secretary of Agriculture to inspect and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption/ all labels on any type of food had to be accurate; directly due to The Jungle
political, social and scientific movement to protect natural resources (Teddy Roosevelt creating national parks and millions of acres for public use)
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Newlands Act (1902)
a United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of the American West. It was authored by Representative Francis G. Newlands of Nevada.
John Muir and Hetch Hetchy (1913)
founded Sierra Club in 1892; fought unsuccessfully to prevent the damming of the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park
Panic of 1907
A financial crisis that occurred in the United States when the New York Stock Exchange fell close to 50% from its peak the previous year. Panic occurred, as this was during a time of economic recession, and there were numerous runs on banks and trust companies.
William Howard Taft
(1857-1930) Twenty-seventh president of the United States; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. He lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Eugene v. Debs (election of 1908)
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Nicaraguan intervention (1912)
Americans under Taft wanted to protect it's investment of the almost finished Panama Canal and revolt in Nicaragua caused 2500 US marines to land there in 1912
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
Taft signed this law that increased import taxes. This was a very regressive tax (regressive = costs the poor and middle class more than it costs the rich). Teddy knew it would be difficult to get Congress to lower taxes on the poor and middle class but was outraged when Taft agreed to sign this law that so clearly increased taxes on working people.
Progressives v. the "Old Guard" (1912)
In the Election of 1912, it would be Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive Republican) versus William H. Taft (Old Guard Republican) versus the Democratic candidate