Upgrade to remove ads
forensics midterm (revised)
Terms in this set (233)
Prohibits unreasonable search and seizure
What does the fourth amendment state?
Evidence obtained in an unreasonable manner cannot be used in a court of law
Why is the fourth amendment important to police investigation?
Invitation in, someone is in danger, to prevent the destruction of evidence
What are the reasons that a police officer can legally search a property without a search warrant?
It keeps an absolutely complete record of every person who has had access to the evidence
What is a chain of custody document?
To be able to use evidence in court it must have a chain of custody document
Why is a chain of custody document important in investigations?
Over time, people forget certain small details that could have significant roles in the case. Also things could be moved around or contaminated later on and not show the full story
Why is recording a crime scene accurately important?
Air-dried, then put into a paper bindle which is then put into a paper container
What would the correct packaging be for bloodstained material found at a crime scene?
So that they do not get moldy
Why would you package organic materials in a certain way?
Evidence that has class characteristics narrows down the suspect pool down to a group of people who all share one commonality, whereas evidence that has individual characteristics narrows down the suspect pool to a single person
What is the difference between evidence that has class characteristics and evidence that has individual characteristics
What is an example of evidence that has class characteristics
What is an example of evidence that has individual characteristics
Fulfill the duties of the first responder
What is the role of a police officer at a crime scene?
Assess the crime scene and assist those who are hurt, detain the witnesses, arrest the perpetrator, protect the crime scene, take notes
What are the duties of a first responder?
Obtain necessary search warrants and make sure everything is being done properly
What is the role of the district attorney at a crime scene?
Investigate the crime scene and obtain any and all evidence
What is the role of the crime scene investigator at a crime scene?
Look at the body and try to determine the cause of death
What is the role of the medical examiner at a crime scene?
Use the evidence to narrow down the suspect pool and find the perpetrator
What is the role of the detective at a crime scene?
Look at things related to their field of forensic science and try to determine things that could be helpful in case
What is the role of the specialist at a crime scene?
Where the crime originally took place
What is a primary crime scene?
Another place related to the crime
What is a secondary crime scene?
When a victim and a suspect come into contact with each other at the scene of a crime, the victim, the suspect, and the crime scene are all changed and every contact leaves a trace
What is Locard's Exchange Principle?
Cut the bag open on a non-sealed edge then seal the bag in a new place and sign over the seal and then sign the evidence log
Describe the proper method for opening a sealed evidence bag and then resealing it?
If the evidence is tampered with or goes missing, investigators can look at who last had the evidence or pinpoint where the evidence was tampered with
Why is it so important to properly document the chain of custody for evidence?
At the crime scene
Where is the rough sketch of a crime scene made?
Measurements, legend with numbers marked on sketch, date, time, address, sketcher's name, case number, and compass
What elements should be included in a rough sketch of a crime scene?
Crime scene must be unaltered
What is the most important element of taking photos at a crime scene?
Jury decides if it can be used, generally accepted by the relevant scientific community, and there is no guidance on reliability
Describe the criteria for admissibility of scientific evidence as laid out in Frye v. US
Document analysis unit
In a case that looks like a suicide, which unit of the crime laboratory will examine a note purportedly written by the victim?
Latent fingerprint unit
In a case that looks like a suicide, which unit of the crime laboratory will examine a revolver bearing very faint fingerprints?
In a case that looks like a suicide, which unit of the crime laboratory will examine traces of skin and blood under the victim's fingernails?
A key/legend, date time, address, sketcher's name, case number, and compass
What are the components that must be included in all crime scene sketches?
Can physical evidence be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion of committing a crime?
A man who murdered multiple young boys. He was important because investigators had to search all over for a specific type of rope he used in his murders and that was how investigators tracked him down
Who was John Jaubert and why was his case important to forensic science?
Direct supports truth of assertion without the need for additional evidence while circumstantial evidence relies on an inference to connect the evidence to facts
What is the difference between direct and circumstantial evidence?
Physical evidence found at a crime scene, things like hair, fingerprints, documents, etc.
What is an example of circumstantial evidence
A statement made under oath, witness testimonial
What is an example of direct evidence?
The study and application of science to matters of law
What is the definition of forensic science?
Shows the crime scene unaltered forever
Explain how photography plays a role in forensic science
Can be used to determine the TOD
Explain how entomology plays a role in forensic science
Can be used to determine if the victim has an unknown substance in their body
Explain how serology plays a role in forensic science
Can be used to identify the age and the social class of the individual
Explain how odontology can be used in forensic science
Can be used to help identify the victim
Explain how anthropology plays a role in forensic science
Can be used to identify the victim or the suspect
Explain how fingerprint analysis plays a role in forensic science
Photography, entomology, serology, odontology, anthropology, and fingerprint analysis
What are the major scientific divisions in forensic science
Who is the gatekeeper that determines the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence?
Liver mortis, rigor mortis, algor mortis, entomology, and stomach and intestinal contents
What are the 5 methods of determining TOD?
Accidental, suicide, homicide, natural, and unknown
What are the 5 manners of death?
The time since the death
What is the post mortem interval
What is the name of the person who performs autopsies in cases where the cause of death is questionable?
Secure the scene, separate the witnesses, scan the scene, see the scene, sketch the scene, search for evidence, secure and collect evidence
What is the correct order of the seven S's of a crime scene?
Protect the scene and make sure no one comes in or out of the crime scene
What does securing the scene mean/involve?
Separate those who saw the crime committed so that they don't mix up the facts
What does separating the witnesses mean/involve?
Determine if primary or secondary crime scene, and look around for where photographs should be taken from and where the evidence might be
What does scan the scene mean/involve?
Take photos of the scene
What does see the scene mean/involve?
Make an accurate rough sketch of the scene noting the position of all of the evidence
What does sketch the scene mean/involve?
Use different search patterns depending on the scene to comb the area and find all of the evidence
What does search for evidence mean/involve?
Make sure all of the evidence is packaged properly depending on what it is
What does securing and collecting the evidence mean/involve?
The WAY a person dies
What is the manner of death?
The REASON a person dies
What is the cause of death?
The specific change in the body that brought about the cessation of life
What is the mechanism of death?
1.4 degrees/hour for the first 12 hours and 0.7 degrees/hour after the first 12 hours
How much does the body cool per hour after death?
Richard Ramirez was the Night-Stalker of California who was caught because police were able to identify him based on a single fingerprint he left on the rearview mirror of a car that he stole
Who was Richard Ramirez and why was his case important to forensic science?
What type of characteristic is a fingerprint? (individual or class)
They give the general shape and pattern as well as give additional individuality to fingerprints
What is the purpose of skin ridges?
What is another name for a dermal ridge?
The palm side of the fingers and thumb
Where on the human body are dermal ridges found?
Sweat and oils from pores in the fingertip that leave a ridge pattern
When a person touches something, he/she leaves behind a fingerprint. What does this impression consist of?
Long bones (femur)
What part of the body would a forensic anthropologist most likely use to determine height?
What part of the body would a forensic anthropologist most likely use to determine sex?
What part of the body would a forensic anthropologist most likely use to determine race?
Just over 3 hours
If a body is found at 94 degrees F how long has the person been dead?
10 minutes to 2 hours after death
When does rigor mortis begin?
About 12 hours after death
When does rigor mortis peak?
15-36 hours after death
When does body begin to relax according to rigor mortis?
When autolysis begins
When does rigor mortis end?
About 2 hours after death
When does lividity begin?
36-48 hours after death
When does rigor mortis completely disappear?
About 8-12 hours after death
When is lividity fixed?
What is the outer layer of skin called?
What is the inner layer of skin called?
Which part of skin actually causes the ridge patterns of a fingerprint?
Pores in the fingertip that lead to sweat glands
Where does the oil that is deposited with a fingerprint come from?
They were the royal family of Russia who were taken over and then murdered. They are important to forensic science because not all of the bodies that were expected were found in their "grave" and forensic scientists had to identify who each body belonged to and who was missing
Who were the Romanovs and why was their case important to forensic science?
Bumpiness of skull, brow ridges, angle of jaw, shape of jaw, mastoid process, occipital protuberance, slope of forehead, size of pelvic opening, tilt of sacrum, subpubic angle, and angle of femur
What are some bone characteristics that would indicate a skeleton was male or female?
Shape of eye orbits, nasal spine, nasal index, prognathism, and femur
What are some bone characteristics that would indicate which race a skeleton belonged to?
How many bones are in a human fetus?
How many bones does an adult have?
What is the membrane that surrounds the bone called?
To keep the bones moist and help heal injuries
What is the function of periosteum?
The length of certain long bones, development or teeth, cranial sutures, and growth and fusion of bones
What characteristics of bone can be used to determine age?
What material connects bone to bone?
What material connects bone to muscle?
What is mDNA?
Where does mDNA come from?
the Automated Fingerprint Identification System
What is AFIS?
Fingerprints collected from a crime scene can be compared against fingerprints in AFIS to identify suspects
How is AFIS important to fingerprint evidence?
The state or process of rotting/decay
Stage of complete metamorphosis in which an insect changes from larva to adult
An early stage in the life cycle of an organism that will undergo complete metamorphosis
Corpse is beginning to dry out and most of the flesh is gone
Corpse appears normal on the outside, but is starting to decompose from actions of autolysis and bacteria
The lower part of the jaw that moves
The upper part of the jaw that does not move
Separates the occipital bone from the parietal bones. At the lower back of the skull
Separates the frontal bone from the parietal bones. At the crown of the head
At the very bottom back of head, more prominent in males than females
12-16 weeks of gestation
When are fingerprints formed?
Can fingerprints be permanently destroyed?
Loop, whorl, and arch
What are the 3 main patterns of prints?
60-65% of population
How common are loop fingerprint patterns? (%)
30-35% of population
How common are whorl fingerprint patterns? (%)
5% of population
How common are arch fingerprint patterns? (%)
Eggs, first instar, second instar, third instar, pupa, adult
What are the stages of insect development?
What time frame is associated with eggs becoming 1 instars?
What time frame is associated with 1 instars becoming 2 instars?
What time frame is associated with 2 instars becoming 3 instars?
What time frame is associated with 3 instars becoming pupa?
What time frame is associated with pupa becoming adult?
The highest life stage of bug on the body can help determine the TOD since bugs tend to function on a predictable cycle
How does forensic entomology help with determining the TOD?
The study of skeletal remains to determine the identity of a victim and the cause of death
What is forensic anthropology?
What do forensic anthropologists usually study?
The smaller outside shin bone
Fingerprint pattern with no delta
Fingerprint pattern with 1 delta
Fingerprint pattern with 2 deltas
The approximate center of the finger impression
According to Galton, 1 in 64 billion people have the same fingerprint
Have any two people been found to have the same fingerprints?
The basal layer grows faster than the other layers and has nowhere to go so it folds up and creates the fingerprint
How are fingerprints formed?
They can be used as signatures and are each individual
Besides identification, why are fingerprints important?
What are minutiae points?
Minutiae give the fingerprint individuality
How are minutiae important to the individuality of fingerprints?
Visible prints are made by touching one substance (like blood) then touching a surface and leaving behind a print anyone can see, a plastic print is a 3-D print left in something (soap), a latent print is a print that is not visible to the naked eye and must be pulled up or enhanced
What is the difference between a visible, latent, and plastic fingerprint?
What is the most common type of fingerprint pattern?
What is the rarest type of fingerprint pattern?
Do identical twins have the same fingerprints?
What is the term for the small details that result in unique ridge patterns?
How many individual ridge characteristics are contained on the average fingerprint?
There is no set number
How many matching characteristics are needed for a case in court?
The temperature of death
What is algor mortis?
The stiffness of death
What is rigor mortis?
The color of death
What is liver mortis?
Gein killed two women and robbed many graves and took body parts and made them into things. He was important to forensic science because he had done all of these things for years but no one had ever suspected him because he seemed like such a normal guy.
Who was Ed Gein and why was his case important to forensic science?
About 23 hours
It a body is found at 74 degrees F, according to algor mortis how long has the person been dead?
Line splits off and then stops near where it split and does not connect to any other lines (ridge characteristic)
Two lines cross one another (ridge characteristic)
A line breaks off and crosses to another line where is connects (ridge characteristic)
The forking or dividing of one line into two or more branches (ridge characteristic)
A spot between 2 lines that does not connect to anything (ridge characteristic)
Two lines split apart and come back together forming kind of a circle (ridge characteristic)
The point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of divergence (spreading of 2 lines which have been running parallel) of 2 lines. (ridge characteristic)
Where a ridge stops and does not restart (ridge characteristic)
The middle layer of the skin where the fingerprint forms
the cause of death
The WAY a person dies
mechanism of death
The specific change in the body that leads to the cessation of life
The use of insects that inhabit decomposing remains to aid in legal investigations
After egg but before pupa, there are 3 stages
A postmortem examination to determine the cause of death or the extent of a disease
A reproduction of friction skin ridges found on the palm side of the fingers and thumb
3-D prints made in pliable surfaces such as wet paint, wax, soap, or mold
Prints that are invisible to the naked eye and require enhancement and are made by the transfer of natural oil or perspiration
Visible prints made by fingers coated with a substance such as dirt, blood, or ink
Deliberately collected print collected from the subject using ink impression
Ridge characteristics or minutiae
Things that give shape, pattern, and individuality to fingerprints
3 basic types, help to categorize fingerprints
A form used to record and preserve a person's fingerprint
AFIS (automated fingerprint identification system)
The system in which all fingerprints are entered into to be compared with other prints
Type of super glue commonly used to set latent fingerprints
The top layer of the skin
The deepest layer of skin
Odor of decaying flesh is present and the corpse appears swollen
Very strong odor, parts of the flesh appear black, gases escape and the corpse collapses
Corpse is almost dry, further decay is slow due to lack of moisture
The application of the science of anthropology and its various subfields to a legal setting
The end of a long bone
Upper arm bone
Larger forearm bone
Smaller forearm bone that connects to the pinky side of the hand
Larger shin bone
fork or bifurcation
dot or island
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Forensics Midterm Study Guide
Forensics Midterm Study Guide
Science Olympiad Crime Busters
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
A&P minitest 1
general psychology exam