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Princeton Review MCAT Physics Glossary
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Gravity
Terms in this set (173)
acceleration
the rate of change of velocity
3.2
action-reaction pair
the two forces described by Newton's third law:
If object 1 exerts force F12 on object 2, then object 2 exerts F21 on object 1
These forces have the same magnitude but point in opposite directions and act on different objects
F21 = -F12
4.1
adiabatic
describes a thermodynamic process in which there is no heat exchange
7.3
alternating current (AC)
Current whose direction reverses (usually many times per second) during the operation of the circuit
10.3
ammeter
a device for measuring current in a circuit
10.1
ampere (amp)
the SI unit of current
1 ampere (amp) = 1 A = 1 Coulomb per sec = 1 C/s
10.1
amplitude
the max displacement of an oscillator from its equilibrium position
OR the max displacement of a wave from equilibrium
11.1 and 11.2
angles of incidence, reflection, and refraction
in optics, the angles that the incident beam, reflected beam, and transmitted beam make with the normal to the boundary between the two media
13.2
angular momentum
the rotational analog of linear momentum
ℓ • m • v
ℓ = distance measured perpendicularly from the reference point to the line containing the velocity
v = velocity of the object
m = mass of the object
6.8
antinode
a point where a standing wave has its maximum amplitude
11.4
Archimedes' principle
the magnitude of the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
If the density of the fluid is (rho)fluid
and the volume of the object that is submerged is V(sub)
then the magnitude of the buoyant force is given by:
F(buoy) = (rho)fluid • V(sub) • g
8.1
beats
the variation in amplitude of the resultant wave created by the interference of two waves with different frequencies
If f1 and f2 are the frequencies of two waves, then the beat frequency is given by
f(beat) = abs(f1-f2)
12.3
Bernoulli effect
AKA Venturi effect
the lowering of fluid pressure as the flow speed increases
8.2
Bernoulli's equation
the statement that follows from the Conservation of Mechanical Energy applied to ideal fluid flow
8.2
Bohr model of the atom
the description of the atom as having quantized orbitals associated with discrete energies and energy level transitions
14.2
buoyant force
the upward force exerted by a fluid on an object partly or completely submerged in it.
F(buoy) = rho(fluid) • V(sub) • g
capacitance
the ratio of charge to voltage for a capacitor
C = Q/V
10.2
center of gravity
for an extended object or system, the point where the gravitational force acts
In a uniform gravitational field, the center of gravity is the same as the center of mass
5.1
center of mass
the point that behaves as if all of an object's mass were concentrated there
5.1
centripetal acceleration
the acceleration of an object that undergoes uniform circular motion
v = speed of the object
r = radius of its circular path
centripetal acceleration points toward the center of the circle and magnitude :
a(c) = v^2 / r
5.2
centripetal force
the net force on an object that undergoes uniform circular motion:
Fc = m • a(c)
a(c) = object's centripetal acceleration
Fc = m•v^2 / r
5.3
coefficient of friction
a positive unitless number that describes the strength of the friction force between two surfaces in contact
coefficient of kinetic friction is usually denoted as μ(k)
coefficient of static friction is usually denoted as μ(s)
In virtually all cases μ(s) > μ(k) for a given pair of surfaces
4.3
completely inelastic collision
an inelastic collision in which the colliding objects stick together afterwards and thus have a single velocity after the collision
6.7
compression
(1) a type of stress applied to an object that decreases its length
(2) also a region where the local density and pressure is momentarily increased from standard due to the passage of a sound wave
8.3 and 12.1
concave
(1) concave mirror is a mirror whose reflecting surface is curved toward the object so that its center is furthest away from the object; it has a positive focal length
(2) concave lens is a diverging lens; it has a negative focal length
13.4 and 13.5
conduction
a mode of heat transfer in which the medium does not move during the transfer of thermal energy
7.2
conductor
a material with a ver low resistivity, which therefore allows charge to flow through it easily
Metals are conductors
9.3
conservative force
if the work done by a force depends only on the initial and final positions of the object that the force is acting on, and not on the particular path between the positions
Ex: the gravitational and electric forces
friction is non-conservative
6.4
continuity equation
for ideal fluid flow, the amount of fluid per unit time (the flow rate) passing one point in a flow tube must be the same as the amount passing through another point:
f1 = f2
A1v1 = A2v2
8.2
convection
a mode of heat transfer in which the medium moves during the transfer of thermal energy
7.3
converging lens
a lens that is thicker in the middle than at its edges
causes incident parallel rays of light to converge to the focal point after passing through the lens
13.5
convex
(1) convex mirror is a mirror whose reflecting surface is curved away from the object; it has a negative focal length
(2) convex lens is a converging lens; it has a positive focal legnth
13.4 and 13.5
coulomb
the SI unit of electric charge
abbreviated C
the fundamental electric charge (the charge on a proton or the magnitude of the charge on an electron) is defined to be e = 1.6E-19 C
therefore, one coulomb is equal to the total charge on 6.25E18 protons
9.1
Coulomb's law
the law that gives magnitude of the electric force between two charged objects:
9.2
critical angle
the angle at which an incident beam of light refracts at an angle of 90ª
n1 = refractive index of the incident medium
n2 = index of the refracting medium
n1 > n2
θ(crit) = critical angle
sin(θ crit) = n2/n1
13.2
current
a net flow of electric charge
more precisely, it's the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time
I = Q/t
10.1
decibel
a unit of sound level
I = intensity of a sound wave
sound level (in decibels, dB) is defined as ß = 10 • log (I/I(0))
I(0) is the threshold of hearing (a reference intensity, E-12 W/m^2)
12.4
density
the ratio of an object's mass to its volume
density = rho = m / V
8.1
dielectric
an insulating material sandwiched between the plates of a capacitor
a capacitor always has a higher capacitance when a dielectric is present
9.3 and 10.2
diffraction
the redistribution of a wave's energy as it encounters and moves beyond an obstruction (or hole)
13.3
diopter
the unit of lens power
1 diopter = 1 D = 1 m^-1
13.5
direct current
current whose direction remains steady during the operation of an electric circuit
10.1 and 10.3
dispersion
the variation of the spped of a wave as the frequency changes
Ex: variation of speed of light through a material medium, such as glass
the colorful spectrum that is seen exiting a glass prism is an example of this dispersion
13.3
displacement
the change in position of an object
the magnitude of an object's displacement gives the net distance traveled by the object
3.2
diverging lens
a lens that is thinner in the middle than at its edges
causes incident parallel rays of light to diverge away from the focal point after passing through the lens
13.5
doppler effect
the perceived change in frequency of a wave due to relative motion between the source of a wave and the detector
when the source and detector are in relative motion toward each other, the detected frequency is higher than the emitted frequency
when the source and detector are in relative motion away from each other, the detected frequency is lower than the emitted frequency
12.5
efficiency
the percentage of the useful work that a machine does in comparison to its theoretical maximum
W(output)/ Energy(input)
6.7
elastic collision
a collision for which total kinetic energy is conserved
6.7
elastic potential energy
the energy stored in a stretched or compressed spring
PE (elastic) = (1/2) • k • x^2
11.1
electric field
a force field created by one or more electric charges
9.3
electric force
the force exerted by an electric field
if a charge q is in an electric field E, then the electric force on q is given by the equation:
F(E) = q • E
9.2 and 9.3
electric potential
electric potential at a point P is equal to the work required to bring a unit charge from infinity to P, divided by that charge
If P is a distance r away from a point charge Q, then the electric potential at P is a scalar quantity given by:
ø = kq/r
where k is Coulomb's constant
9.4
electrical potential energy
the energy stored in the field surrounding a configuration of charged objects
A charge q experience an electric potential ø has an electric potential energy given by
PE = q • ø
9.4
electromagnetic (EM) spectrum
the full range of electromagnetic radiation where different ranges of frequencies (and wavelengths) are categorized
such categories include ( in order of increasing frequency): radio waves, microwaves, infrared (IR) light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x rays, and gamma rays
13.1
electron
a fundamental subatomic particle with a negative electric charge (equal to -e, the negative of the elementary electric charge) that orbits the nucleus of an atom
9.1
entropy
the measure of disorder of a thermodynamic system
7.4
equilibrium
an object or system is said to be in translational equilibrium if the net force on it is zero
an object or system is said to be in rotational equilibrium if the net torque on it is zero
an object or system is said to be in equilibrium if it is in both translation and rotational equilibrium
5.4
for an oscillator, the equilibrium position is the point at which the restoring force is zero
11.1
equipotential
a curve or surface on which the electric potential remains constant
9.4
equivalent resistance
the single resistance that provides the same overall resistance as a combination of resistors
10.1
farad
the SI unit of capacitance
1 farad = 1 coulomb per volt = 1 C/V
10.2
flow rate
the amount of fluid that flows per unit time
it is equal to the cross-sectional area of the flow tube multiplied by the flow speed:
f = A•v
8.2
fluid
a substance that can flow
a substance that cannot withstand a shear stress
both liquids and gases are fluids
8.1
focal length
the distance form a mirror or lens to its focal point along the axis of curvature
concave mirrors and converging lenses have positive focal lengths
convex mirrors and diverging lenses have negative focal lengths
13.4 and 13.5
focal point (or focus)
the point where any curved mirror or lens focuses the image of a distant object
For a concave mirror or a converging lens, the focal point (or focus) is the point
TO
which rays of light that are initially parallel to the optical axis are focused after contact with the mirror or lens
For a convex mirror or a diverging lens, the focal point is the point
FROM
which rays of light that are initially parallel to the optical axis are diverged after contact with the mirror or lens
13.4 and 13.5
force
a push or pull exerted by one object on another
may result in an acceleration if the forces on the object are not balanced
4.1
frequency
number of oscillations (or cycles) per second
11.1, 11.2, 12.1, and 13.1
friction
parallel component of the contact force exerted by a surface on an object
4.3
fundamental frequency
AKA first harmonic
the lowest permissible frequency, or longest permissible wavelength, of a standing wave
11.4
gravitational acceleration
the acceleration produced by the gravitational pull of a body, directed toward the center of the body
the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration, g, produced by the earth is approximately 10 m/s^2 near the surface
3.5
gravitational force
in Newton's theory of gravitation, every object exerts a force, a gravitational pull, on every other object
if the masses of the object are m1 and m2
if their centers of mass are separated by a distance r
then the magnitude of the gravitational force between them is given by:
F(grav) = G • m1 • m2 / r^2
heat
the transfer of thermal energy between a system and its environment
7.1
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
the quantum physics principle that restricts the precision with which position and momentum of a particle can be defined
∆x • ∆p ≥ h/ 2π
14.5
hertz
the SI unit of frequency
1 hertz = 1 Hz = 1 cycle (or oscillation) per second
11.1
Hooke's law
the magnitude of the force exerted by a stretched or compressed object or spring is proportional to the distance by which it is stretched or compressed from equilibrium:
F(rest) = -k • x
11.1
hydrostatic gauge pressure
the pressure at a point below the surface of a fluid at rest, due to the weight of the fluid above it:
P(gauge) = rho(fluid) • g • D
where D is the depth
8.1
impulse
the product of force and the time during which it acts
impulse = J = F • ∆t
6.7
impulse-momentum theorem
the total impulse delivered to an object is equal to its change in momentum
J(total) = ∆p
6.7
index of refraction
the index of refraction for a medium is equal to the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light through the medium:
n = c / v
13.2
inelastic collision
a collision in which total momentum is conserved, but total kinetic energy is not
6.7
inertia
(1) resistance to acceleration; measured by its mass and is the ratio of the net force on an object to its acceleration:
inertia = m = F(net) / a
(2) rotational inertia (AKA moment of inertia) is resistance to rotational acceleration
4.1 and 5.5
insulator
a material with a very high resistivity that does not permit charge to flow through it easily
Glass and wood as examples
9.3
Intensity
the intensity of a wave is the power it transmits per unit area
the units of I are therefore W / m^2
related directly to the wave's amplitude and diminishes with the square of the distance from the source
12.4
interference
the combination of two or more waves
constructive interference
= when the waves are in phase (crest meets crest, trough meets trough). the amplitude of the resultant wave is equal to the sum of the individual amplitudes
destructive interference
= when the waves are out of phase (crest meets trough, trough meets crest). the amplitude of the resultant wave is equal to the difference between the individual amplitudes
11.3
isobaric
describes a thermodynamic process in which pressure is held constant
7.3
isochoric
describes a thermodynamic process in which volume is held constant
7.3
isothermal
describes a thermodynamic process in which temperature is held constant
7.3
joule
the SI unit of work and energy
1 joule = 1 J = 1 N•m = 1 kg•m^2/ s^2
6.1
kinetic energy
the energy due to motion
for an object of mass m and speed v, the kinetic energy is:
KE = (1/2) m•v^2
6.3
kinetic friction
AKA sliding friction
the friction that results when there is relative motion between the two surfaces
when one surface slides across the other
If F(N) = magnitude of the normal
μ(k) = coefficient of kinetic friction between the two surfaces
then the force of kinetic friction is directed opposite to the direction of the sliding and its magnitude is:
F(f) = μ(k) • F(N)
4.3
Kirchoff's laws
(1) the total amount of current entering a junction in a circuit must be equal to the total amount of current leaving the junction
(2) the sum of the voltages around a closed loop in a circuit must be zero
10.1
lens
a thin piece of glass or plastic that forms an image by refracting light
13.5
lever arm
Denoted by ℓ
the perpendicular distance from the pivot (reference) point to the line of action of a force
5.3
longitudinal wave
A wave in which the oscillations of the medium are parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave
Sound waves are longitudinal
12.1
magnetic field
the force field created by a
moving
electric charge
10.4
magnetic force
the force exerted by a magnetic field on a moving charge
q = charge
v = velocity
B = magnetic field
magnetic force on q is given by:
F = q • (v•B)
magnitude of F is given by:
F = abs(q) • v • B • sinθ
θ = angle between v and B
direction of F is given by the right-hand rule if q is positive
given by the left hand rule if q is negative
10.4
magnification
the ratio of the height of the image to the height of the object
a negative value for the magnification means that the image is inverted relative to the object
for a mirror or lens, the magnification is given by the equation
m = -i / o
where i and o are the distances from the mirror or lens to the image and the object, respectively
13.4 and 13.5
mass
the quantitative measure of an object's inertia
measuring the amount of matter in an object
In SI unites, mass is expressed in kilograms (kg), and is the ratio of the net force on an object to its acceleration:
mass = m = F(net) / a
4.1
mechanical advantage
the factor by which a machine or mechanism multiplies the input or effort force
applied to simple machines such as inclined planes, pulley systems, and levers
6.6
mirror
a surface that forms an image by reflecting light
13.4
moment of inertia
AKA rotational inertia
measures its resistance to rotational acceleration (just as an object's mass measures its resistance to translational acceleration)
5.5
momentum
the product of an object's mass and velocity:
momentum = p = m•v
6.7
net force
the sum of all the forces that act on an object
4.1
neutron
a subatomic particle with zero electric charge that is a constituent of atomic nuclei
9.1
newton
the SI unit of force
1 newton = 1 N = 1 kg•m/s^2
4.1
Newton's laws of motion
(1) If F(net) = 0, then the object's velocity will not change
(2) F = m•a
(3) if object 1 exerts a force (F 1 on 2) on object 2, then object 2 exerts a force (F 2 on 1), on object 1. these forces (known as an action-reaction pair) have the same magnitude but point in opposite directions
F(2 on 1) = -F(1 on 2), and act on different objects
4.1
node
a point where a standing wave has zero amplitude
11.4
normal
as an adjective, it means perpendicular
as a noun, a normal is a line that's perpendicular to a surface
4.3 and 13.2
normal force
for an object in contact with a surface, the normal force is the component of the force exerted by the surface that is perpendicular to the surface
4.3
north pole of magnet
the pole from which the magnetic field lines emerge from a magnet
10.4
ohm
the unit of resistance:
1 ohm: 1 Ω = 1 volt per amp = 1 V/A
10.1
Ohm's law
a material is said to obey Ohm's law if its resistance remains constant as the voltage across it varies
thus, for such a material:
V = I•R
where R is a constant
10.1
parallel resistors
resistors in a circuit are said to be in parallel if the provide alternate routes for current to flow from one point in the circuit to another
always share the same voltage drop
10.1
pascal
the unit of pressure:
1 pascal = 1 Pa = 1 newton per square meter = 1 N/m^2
8.1
Pascal's law
a confined fluid transmits an externally applied change in pressure to all parts of the fluid equally
8.1
Pauli exclusion principle
the quantum physics rule that restricts the number of particles that can occupy the same quantum state within a small proximity
the principle that explains how electron orbitals fill in the elements
14.3
period
the time required for one complete oscillation (or cycle)
11.1 and 11.2
periodic (harmonic) motion
any motion that regularly repeats, such as uniform circular motion or oscillatory motion
11.1
photoelectric effect
the effect wherein photons eject individual electrons from a metal
14.4
photon
light travels as a wave, but interacts with matter as a stream of particles
these "particles", each an indivisible quantum of energy, are photons
photons have no mass and move at the speed of light
the energy carried by each photon is proportional to the frequency of the light:
E(photon) = h•f
where h is a constant of nature (Planck's constant)
13.1 and 14.2
polarized
(1) a transverse wave is polarized if direction of its oscillations is constant (or is confined to vary in a particular way). For a plane-polarized electromagnetic wave, the direction of polarization is the direction of oscillation of the electric field
(2) circular polarization is the result of two perpendicular waves with a 90º phase difference interfering, and resulting in the apparent rotation of the electric field
13.1 and 13.3
potential energy (PE)
the energy of an object (or system) due to its position or configuration
there are different forms of potential energy, depending on the force involved:
•gravitational PE
•electrical PE
•elastic PE
6.4, 9.4, and 11.1
power
(1) in mechanics, power is the rate at which work is done or energy is used. Power is equal to work (or energy) divided by time, and its SI unit is the watt, where 1 watt = 1 W = 1 J/s
(2) in optics, lens power is a measure of the focusing strength of a lens. lens power is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length of the lens:
P = 1/f
If f is expressed in meters, then lens power has units of diopters, where 1 diopter = 1 D = 1 m^-1
6.2 and 13.5
pressure
a scalar quantity equal to the magnitude of the perpendicular force per unit area
7.2, 7.3, and 8.1
projectile motion
the motion of a particle moving under the influence of uniform (constant) acceleration
if the object's initial velocity is not purely vertical, the path of the object will be a parabola
3.6
proton
a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge (equal to elementary electric charge +e) that is a constituent of atomic nuclei
9.1
quantized
a quantity is said to be quantized if it exists only in discrete amounts
Ex:
(1) electric charge on an object can only be an integer multiple of the basic unit of electric charge, e
(2) electromagnetic radiation of frequency f can be absorbed only in whole number multiples of the photon energy, h•f
9.1 and 14.1
quantum physics
the physics associated with discrete values and changes in the values of such quantities
associated strongly with wave-particle duality
14.1
radiation
(1) energy emitted or absorbed due to propagation of waves (electromagnetic waves, unless a different kind of wave is specially mentioned)
(2) a mode of heat transfer via electromagnetic waves
13.1 and 7.2
rarefaction
a region where the local density and pressure is momentarily decreased from standard due to the passage of a sound wave
12.1
real image
an image formed by a mirror or lens where light rays actually do intersect
unlike a virtual image, a real image can be projected onto a screen
13.4
reflection
when waves or particles "bounce off" a surface on which they are incident, the return of these waves or particles is called reflection
13.2
refraction
the change in direction of a wave when it passes from one medium into another
13.2
resistance
the ratio of the voltage to current
R = V/I
10.1
resistivity
the intrinsic resistance of a material
10.1
resistor
a component of an electrical circuit that proves resistance to the flow of current
10.1
restoring force
for an object undergoing oscillation, the force on the object that is directed toward equilibrium
11.1
Snell's law
the law of refraction in optics, n1 • sinθ1 = n2 • sinθ2
where n1 and n2 are the refractive indexes of the incident and refracting media respectively
θ1 is the angle of incidence
θ2 is the angle of refraction
13.1 and 13.2
sound level
a measurement, in decibels, of the intensity of a sound wave
the sound-level for a wave of intensity I is given by the equation
ß = 10 log(base 10) (I/I[0])
where I(0) is the threshold of hearing
12.4
south pole of magnet
the pole into which the magnetic field lines enter a magnet
10.4
specific gravity
the unitless ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water sp
gr = rho(substance) / rho(water)
8.1
speed
the magnitude of an object's velocity
3.2
standing wave
a wave caused by the superposition of two oppositely directed traveling waves, for which the resulting crests and troughs do not travel
11.4
state function/ state variable
the measure of an intrinsic, macroscopic property of a thermodynamic system that defines the present attributes of the system, independent of past processes
7.2
static friction
the friction that results when there is no relative motion between the two surfaces; that is, when neither slides across the other
If F(N) is the magnitude of the normal force and
μ(s) is the coefficient of static friction between the two surfaces
then the force of static friction is directed opposite to the direction of the intended motion and its maximum magnitude is
F(f,max) = μ(s, max) • F(N)
4.3
stopping voltage
In the photoelectric experiment, the negative voltage necessary to prevent the most energetic photoelectrons ejected from the metal surface from reaching the detector
14.4
strain
the ratio of the change in one of an object's dimensions to the original, caused by an applied stress
for a compressive or tensile stress, the strain is equal to (the magnitude of) the change in the object's length divided by the original length
∆L / L
for a shear stress, the strain is equal to the distance the object is deformed perpendicular to the shear stress divided by the length perpendicular to the direction of the bend
d(⟂ shear) / L(⟂ bend)
8.3
stress
the magnitude of the force acting on an object, divided by the area over which it acts
superposition
the addition principle that applies to several different physical phenomena:
•electric forces
•fields
•potentials
•waves
where the result is simply equal to the sum of the individual vector or scalar values
9.2, 9.3, 9.4 and 11.3
system
the object or substance - or objects or substances and the interactions among them - that are the focus of study
contrasted with the environment, which is everything else
7.1
temperature
a thermodynamic state function that corresponds to the internal, random kinetic energy of the constituent particles of a system
7.1 and 7.2
tension
a type of force applied to a solid object that tends to increase its length
also used to describe the pulling force exerted by a stretched spring, rope, chain, or spring
4.1, 4.5, and 8.3
tesla
the SI unit of magnetic field strength
1 tesla = 1 T = 1 newton per amp-meter = 1 N/A•m
10.4
thermodynamics
the study of how macroscopic systems transfer or transform energy
7.1
Thermodynamic laws
0th law
= two objects in thermal equilibrium with the same third object are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Defines temperature as a state function
1st law
= the total quantity of energy in the universe is conserved. the energy into and out of a system equals its change in internal energy: ∆E = Q-W
2nd law
= the entropy of a closed system will either stay the same or increase
7.2, 7.3, and 7.4
threshold of hearing
the lowest intensity the human ear can detect
denoted as I(0) and 10^-12 W/m^2
12.4
torque
a quantity associated with a force that measures how effective the force is at producing rotational acceleration
r = vector from the pivot point to the point of application of a force
F = force
θ = angle between r and F
then the torque of the force is defined to be
τ = r•F•sin θ
5.3
Torricelli's result
the equation giving the speed of efflux for a static fluid from a small hole in a large open container
v = √(2•g•D)
where D = depth of the hole below the surface of the fluid
8.2
total internal reflection
when an incident beam of light strikes the surface of a medium with a lower index of refraction, the beam will experience total internal reflection (TIR) if the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle
In this case, none of the beam's energy is transmitted to the other medium; it is only reflected
13.2
total mechanical energy
the sum of an object's kinetic energy and potential energy
E(total) = KE + PE
6.5
transverse wave
a wave in which the oscillations that make up the wave are perpendicular to the direction of the wave's propagation
waves on a rope and electromagnetic waves are transverse
11.2
velocity
the rate of change of an object's position
v = ∆s / ∆t = d / ∆t
gives both the speed and the direction of motion of the object
3.2
virtual image
an image formed by a mirror or lens where light rays don't actually intersect
unlike a real image, a virtual image cannot by displayed on a screen
convex mirrors and diverging (concave) lenses form only virtual images
13.4
viscosity
the internal friction of a fluid
an ideal fluid is one whose viscosity is negligible
8.2
volt
the SI unit of electric potential and voltage
1 volt = 1 V = 1 joule per coulomb = 1 J/C
9.4
voltage
the difference in electric potential between two points
9.4 and 10.1
voltmeter
a device for measuring the voltage across a circuit element
10.1
watt
the SI unit of a power
1 watt = 1 W = 1 joule per second = 1 J/s
6.2
wave
a disturbance that carries energy and momentum from one position to another
11.2
wavelength
the distance (denoted by λ) between consecutive crests ( or between consecutive troughs) of a wave
11.2
weight
the gravitational force exerted on an object
w = m•g
4.2
work
the work done by a constant force F as it acts through a displacement d is given by
W = F•d•cos θ
where θ is the angle between F and d
For an ideal gas in a container, work can be expressed as the product of its change in volume and its pressure
W = P•∆V
Work is a scalar quantity, and its SI unit is the joule
1 joule = 1 J = 1 kg•m^2/s^2
7.3
work-energy theorem
the total amount of work done on an object is equal to the change in the object's kinetic energy
W = ∆KE
6.3
work function
the binding energy of a metal for its free electrons, overcome during the photoelectric effect
14.4
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