48 terms

Food Science Unit 1.1: Nutrition

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nutitional functions of proteins
structure, enzymes, antibodies, hormones, energy source
proteins are
polymers of amino acids
amino acids
building blocks of protein
compounds containing C, H, O, N, [S]
radical group
differentiates amino acids from each other
non-essential amino acids (dispensable)
can be made by the body
essential amino acids (indispensable)
cannot be made by the body
essential amino acids list (indispensable)
isoleucine
leucine
lysine
methionine
phenylalanine
threonine
tryptophan
valine
(histidine)
(arganine)
High Biological Value (HBV)
protein foods that contain all of the essential amino acids in approximate proportion required by humans
Low Biological Value (LBV)
protein foods that are missing one of more essential amino acids
limiting amino acid
the essential amino acid in lowest concentration in a food or diet relative to body needs
protein complementation
combining incomplete protein sources to provide all of the essential amino acids in relatively adequate amounts for a combination of higher biological value
carbohydrates are
hydrated carbon compounds (CH2O)
carbohydrates function
provide energy
carbohydrate structures
monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
monosaccharides definition
single sugar molecules
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
disaccharides definition
made up of two monosaccharides
disaccharides
sucrose
lactose
maltose
sucrose
glucose + fructose
lactose
glucose + galactose
maltose
glucose + glucose
polysaccharides definition
large macromolecules formed from joining monosaccharides
polysaccharides
starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin
starch
created from chains of glucose
found as amylose (straight chains) and amylopectin (branched chains)
glycogen
a stored version of glucose located in the muscles and liver; supplies energy between meals/exercise/overnight
pectin
non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
found in cells of fruits and vegetables (esp. seed, pith and peel)
gelling agent - used to create jams
cellulose
non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
can't be broken down into glucose during digestion
Non-starch polysaccharides
structural parts of plants (cell walls)
Non-starch polysaccharide classifications
Pectin
Cellulose
Gum
Hemicelluloses
staple food criteria
readily available to the population, often meaning low cost
provide major source of energy (generally high in starch)
may provide important contribution to protein sources
provide micronutrients
intrinsic sugars
Sugars which form part of a cell structure of plants
extrinsic sugars
Added sugars and sweeteners
extrinsic sugar examples
lactose
non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES):
fruit juice, honey, sugar added during manufacture or cooking
fats
rich source of energy
fats function
long term energy storage and insulation
prevents hair and skin from becoming too dry
carrier for fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
triglyerides
large fat molecules composed of 3 parts fatty acids and 1 part glycerol
essential fatty acids
required in the diet for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
saturated fatty acids
no double bonds between carbon atoms and fatty acid chains
unsaturated fatty acids
double bonds between carbons of fatty acid chains
reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton
cholesterol functions
produce bile acids to digest fats
absorbing and using fats from food
hormone synthesis
animal sources of fats
meat, fish, dairy
plant sources of fats
fruits and vegetables (olives, avocados), nuts, seeds, palm, coconut
essential fatty acids definition
fats needed by the body that must be consumed in the diet because the human body cannot manufacture them
essential fatty acids
linolenic acid
linoleic acid
arachidonic acid
malnutrition
imbalance in the supply of one or more nutrients to the body
types of malnutrition
undernutrition and overnutrition
overnutrition
diet containing too much of one or more nutrients
weight gain occurs
adipose tissue stored in body
undernutrition
diet containing too little of one or more nutrients, inadequate energy intake often due to poverty caused by crop failure
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